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How to Write a Communications Plan



11 B2B Content Ideas to Fuel your Marketing (with Examples)

A communications plan is a fantastic way of showing how well you understand your audience. It also shows your ability to deliver insights about your products and services to gain the consumers’ attention. However, writing one can be challenging. It takes time, dedication, and effort to develop the best information pathway.

This post will explore the crucial points for the success of your communication plan. Read on!

What is a Communications Plan?

A communications plan is a structured strategy of developing and distributing information about a product, service, or company to the target audience. 

The plan also contains procedures for communicating with buyers, clients, stakeholders, and others using various tools such as telephones, computers, and print media.

What Makes Up a Good Communications Plan?

Below are the critical components.

1. Introduction

The introduction contains:

  • The plan’s background

  • Objectives

  • Strategies of the communications program

  • A high-level description of how it works

  • A brief description of the business, competition, and corporate goals

2. Objectives

This section captures your targeted business or marketing outcome for the project. Objectives are measurable and specific. If the goal is to sell one million iPads during the Christmas holidays, your plan could include increasing iPad sales by 20% over last year’s holiday season, achieving 10 million dollars in iPad revenue, and opening 50 new stores with iPads on display.

3. Program Outline

This section explains the actions required to implement the objectives and strategy outlined in the introduction. The outline captures profiles of stakeholders, communication channels, planning, and scheduling. 

It also includes the training needs of communication team members, support required to implement the communication plan, and resources needed for communication activities. 

The size and nature of the target audience are also discussed with the expected response after delivering information about a product, service, or company through different channels.

4. Strategy/Methodology

It is the list of specific action steps required to conduct an activity mentioned in the program outline. It is broken down according to different communication channels like print or electronic media. 

The methodology also captures recommendations for effective tone, language, and style depending on the target audience.

5. Schedules

This section contains specific implementation activities based on your marketing campaign timeline for each channel. This includes print media, web, press releases, and face-to-face meetings. It also maps out the amount of effort you need to spend on each activity.

6. Budgets

This part includes the budget requirements and costs of activities detailed within the communications plan. Furthermore, it includes information on expected costs and resources required to accomplish each task and activity mentioned in the program outline and methodology.

7. Issues and Risks

With every good communications plan, expect to have some risks and issues. This section captures what should go well with your plan and what may go wrong along the way. It also identifies potential obstacles that can affect the success of your communications plans, like employees not taking the initiative or lack of commitment, budget, and time constraints.

8. Monitoring and Evaluation

This section contains the method of putting your plan into action. It captures how you will measure success for each task mentioned in the tactics. It also explains who is responsible for measuring success, how it will be done, when it will be done, and what information is required to finalize results. 

9. Appendix

The appendix includes information or additional data not contained in the communications plan’s body but valuable to communicate with stakeholders. It could be product literature, logos, presentations, reports, case studies, and photos required to effectively deliver the intended message. You can also use this section to capture metrics and anecdotes that may not fit into the body.

How To Create An Excellent Communications Plan

1. Define The Purpose Of The Communication

Identifying the purpose of your communication is beneficial in determining your strategy’s objective and expected achievement. 

Building a meaningful sense for your communication channel requires you to:

  • Research the current scenario and requirements for your product or service

  • Take inputs from crucial members who work with your target audience and highlight the problems faced by them

  • Create a valuable plan to highlight your product or service advantages

2. Identify Your Target Audience 

Who are you trying to reach? For example, suppose you are targeting high-profile clients.  You must have a clear idea for your communication on issues such as what products or services they consume as well as the level of expertise necessary to solve the problems that currently exist within their niche. 

To define your audience, do the following:

  • Identify the right person to share with your audience

  • Analyze demographics, purchasing power, location, and age that count when defining your audience

  • Understand the critical pain points of your target audience

  • Identify if your target audience prefers written content, video, or social media for

  • Decide what actions you want them to take after they are exposed to your communication

3. Develop The Message

Creating the right message involves the following concepts: 

1. Content

Content creates an emotional bond with your target audience while delivering your message and motivates them to purchase. 

When developing content, you should;

  • Be original

  • Be knowledgeable and passionate

  • Use simple and easy-to-understand words. 

  • Focus on your target audience perspective than the business perspective.

  • Use an “I” perspective to ensure efficiency in message delivery

2. Mood

Mood describes the motive behind your communication. It’s a powerful tool to communicate with your customers and ensure you have their full attention: To create the right mood for your communication plan, you should; 

  • Overcome objections and provide answers to questions raised by your target audience.

  • Make them feel an emotional connection with your product or service

  • Build trust by highlighting key pain point addresses in your products or services 

3. Design

Design is essential to understanding the mood of your communication. Having a great plan creates a positive impact on how people perceive your brand. To create a strong design effect, consider the following: 

  • Use a single, consistent color scheme for your content

  • Create a custom logo

  • Highlight key features in your product or service

  • Select the correct font to ensure ease of use and readability

4. Language

Always use your target audience’s everyday language. Use words that are widely used by your audience on your products and services to describe their pain points. For example, if you’re targeting the construction industry, use words such as storm drain and lateral line instead of industry technical terms such as infiltration trenches and property drains.

4. Select The Best-Fit Communication Channels

List out all communication channels that potentially serve your target audience. Evaluate each separately before settling on the ideal channel that fits into your communication strategy. 

You can develop an individual communication plan for each channel. For example, using our marketing communicating solutions allows you to retain trademark messaging while driving unified advertising communications steadily across every touchpoint.

You can also have a good mix of communication channels to reach out to different target audiences. The communication channels could be a mix of face-to-face communication, event-based communication, social media, and advertisements.

When selecting the best-fit channel, you should:

  • Understand the advantages and disadvantages of each channel

  • Determine the medium that works best for your target audience

  • Evaluate your budget and resources before making an informed decision

  • Pick a channel widely applicable within your target audience and niche 

Leverage your communication channel to maintain a consistent focus for all posts on your channel. It also confirms you are reaching the right audience with each post, video, or email. 

5. Evaluate Your Resources

Do you have sufficient resources? The supplies available at your disposal will always determine the success of your communications plan. Resources range from time, financial, human, software, equipment, and your networks. 

Always maximize the available resources without compromising on quality. If you are going to outsource additions, consider their implications to your communications plans. Have a precise integration plan to achieve the desired income while facilitating the intended project goals. 

6. Anticipate Shocks

Shocks are unexpected events outside the control of management that can disrupt your activities or plans. The communication shocks include:

  • The death of supporting or mainstream staff.

  • Natural disasters.

  • Death of key stakeholders or purchase decision-makers.

  • Amendments or enactment of new communication laws and competition.

Always prepare for these events before their occurrence in the following ways: 

  • Identify key stakeholders and their key contacts

  • Plan for the worst possible outcome to avoid getting caught up off-guard

  • Develop contingency plans to ensure continuity with your communication plans after the shocks 

  • Paying keen attention to details to point out signs of shock occurrences 

7. Create An Effective Action Plan

Action plans can manage and measure your communication activities. They cover the following aspects. 

1. Campaign planning

  • Determining the milestones and deadlines in your communications plan

  • Setting a timeframe for your communication plan

  • Selecting and assigning each team member with a task 

  • Allocating resources for every task

2. Measuring and tracking 

  • Establishing measurable goals and objectives for your communication plan

  • Creating a way of measuring your achievement against set targets 

  • Monitoring the results on an ongoing basis

  • Monitoring signs for possible risks and developing issues that you should address

3. Ways of improving your communication plan

  • Determining whether your communication’s goals and objectives are clear 

  • Gauging if your targeted audience received your content correctly

  • Distinguishing your strategy reflects all your audience’s necessary pain points 

  • Determining the effectiveness of your communications plan’s monitoring 

  • Evaluating whether you have the proper channels to adopt to tackle the good and bad stressors affecting your plan

8. Evaluate Any Feedback Offered

Feedback from your target audience helps you understand the effectiveness of your communication plan. A recent study done by G2 and Heinz Marketing showed that approximately 61% of buyers prefer seeing around 11-50 reviews before purchasing.

Feedback could be gathered through channels such as: 

  • Customer feedback forms 

  • Inspection of your website traffic 

  • Reviews, comments, and interactions on your social media platforms 

  • Surveying your links click-through rates 

  • Monitoring the number of leads generated from your website 

You can also gather feedback by engaging directly with the target audience through: 

What Is The Importance Of A Communications Plan?

The following are the reasons why you have to consider preparing a communications plan:

Defining Your Target Audience

You are more likely to reach your audience if you know the individual needs of different target audiences. 

Budgeting For Your Communications

It is easier to plan for communications if you understand how much you can spend. A communications plan helps you develop realistic expectations around return on investment for your contacts.

Resource Allocation

A clear communications plan reduces the timelines needed to identify the resources required to implement and execute the strategy. It also helps you distribute resources effectively for maximum reach and impact of the plan.

Clear Objectives

Achieving your objectives requires a well-structured communications plan with specific goals, target audience, key messages, and measurement mechanisms.

Trustworthiness & Transparency

A well-defined communications plan demonstrates credibility and transparently communicates your intentions to the target audience. It also boosts your stakeholders’ confidence in your products or services.

Alignment With Other Strategies

A well-defined communications plan enhances your overall brand strategy by reinforcing key messages and positioning across different channels. It also helps you improve alignment and integration between marketing, public relations, and business development strategies.


Communications plans are beneficial for adjusting and developing new strategies leading to business growth. Based on the feedback from stakeholders, a clear strategy will help you address issues and make any necessary course corrections.


A communication plan sets the foundation for an organization to build on over time. Ensure you discover what works and continue to deliver on your objectives through multiple communication avenues.

When To Update Your Communications Plan?

Below are the appropriate moments for you to update your communications plan:

  • When you have analyzed the effectiveness of your strategy and identified areas that require improvements 

  • When you have done a formal review after experiencing changes in the business environment, such as new competitors entering the market or increased competitor activity 

  • When you have identified new target audiences that require a unique and different marketing approach 

  • When you have developed new product/ service offerings that need to be communicated in a different way 

  • When you have gained feedback from your target audience on the effectiveness of your communication strategy after its launch 

Whenever you are looking for an expert in creating an effective communications plan, Welcome has got you covered. We are an expert marketing orchestration platform with four years of experience harmonizing marketers’ roles in planning, collaborating, monitoring, and working efficiently. Get in touch with us for a free and no-obligation consultation.


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Hur man använder WhatsApp som ett effektivt marknadsföringsverktyg



Hur man använder WhatsApp som ett effektivt marknadsföringsverktyg

WhatsApp has become one of the most widely-used messaging apps in the world. With over 2 billion committed users, it has become a platform where people communicate with family, friends, and even the companies they buy from. WhatsApp Business, a version designed solely for businesses, allows companies to communicate with their customers and vendors. In this article, we will show you how you can use WhatsApp Business Accounts as a crucial marketing and customer service tool.

What is WhatsApp Business?

WhatsApp Business is a free messaging app made for business use. It allows companies to have a presence on theWhatsApp business platformand relay messages to their customers.

WhatsApp Business has many useful features for businesses, such as automated messages, quick replies, and labels. This can make communication more efficient and save time for busy companies. It can be especially helpful for small and mid-sized businesses that don’t have the budget for a large marketing and customer service team.

Why use WhatsApp Business?

Using WhatsApp Business can give you a competitive edge. Many of its features are great for businesses. For one, it allows businesses to reach a large audience. With over 2 billion active users, WhatsApp provides a platform where businesses can communicate with their customers on a one-to-one basis. This personalized approach can help businesses build strong relationships with their customers and improve customer satisfaction.

Secondly, WhatsApp Business can improve customer service. By using features such as automated messages and quick replies, businesses can react to customer concerns quickly and efficiently. This can help businesses provide better customer service and increase customer loyalty. It can also be a great tool for sending large file transfers to customers, such as detailed invoices or product information.

Third, WhatsApp Business can be an effective marketing tool. By using features such as broadcast lists and group chats, businesses can reach a large audience with targeted messages. This can help businesses promote their products and services and increase sales. For example, if you are having a big Spring sale, you can send a mass Whatsapp message to all of your followers without worrying about incurring large data fees. You should always be sure to include your WhatsApp contact details on your digital business card so that you can build a following on the app.

How to use WhatsApp Business for marketing and customer service?

The benefits of using WhatsApp Business are clear. Now, let’s learn how to use it effectively for marketing and customer service.

Create a professional profile

The first step is to create a professional profile for your business. Be sure to include your business name, logo, contact info, and description. This will ensure people recognize your business and make it easier for them to contact you. You should feature your WhatsApp on your social media and e-commerce websites so that prospects can easily reach out for more information.

Use automated messages and instant replies

Automated messages and quick replies can be a time-saving, life-saving feature for small and large businesses alike. Automated messages can be set up to greet customers and provide information about your business. Quick replies can even be used to respond to frequently asked questions. This can help businesses provide better customer service and improve response times.

Use labels to organize conversations

Labels can be used to categorize conversations and make it simpler to find specific messages. This can be especially important for businesses that receive a high volume of inquiries. Labels can be used to organize marketing conversations, such as new customers, existing customers, and inquiries. Labels can also be used for customer service-related inquiries, such as a “refund,” “complaint” or “general inquiries” labeled folders.

Use broadcast lists to send targeted messages

Broadcast lists can be utilized to send targeted marketing messages to a wide audience. Businesses can build marketing lists based on customer preferences or interests and send them highly targeted and/or personal messages. This can help businesses promote their products and services and increase sales. It can also help add a personal touch to your business when you can directly send an intimate message – such as a Happy Birthday text – to a single customer.

Use group chats for customer support

Group chats can be used for customer support and provide customers with a platform to ask questions and receive support. Businesses can create groups for specific products or services and provide customers with information and support.

Provide personalized support

Providing personalized support can help businesses build long-lasting relationships with their consumer base. Businesses can use features such as personalized greetings and messages to provide a custom-tailored experience for their customers. This can help businesses improve customer satisfaction and increase brand engagement. You can also use WhatsApp to have customer service phone conversations with your customers by dialing their WhatsApp number.

Use WhatsApp Business API for automation

WhatsApp Business API can be great for automation. It can also save businesses time and optimize response times. It enables businesses to automate messages, set up chatbots, and integrate with other systems. This can aid businesses that aim to provide better customer service and improve response times.


WhatsApp Business can be a vital marketing and customer service tool for businesses. By using features such as automated messages, quick replies, broadcast lists, and group chats, businesses can reach a large audience, and provide better customer service while also saving time and money.


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Hitta nyckelord som du faktiskt kan ranka efter med dessa 4 frågor



Hitta nyckelord som du faktiskt kan ranka efter med dessa 4 frågor

Driving organic traffic from search often requires attaining high Google rankings. Often, I see marketers creating content with that goal but without keeping keyword research in mind. They expend valuable time and effort creating a piece that ultimately falls flat.

Marketers often mistakenly create #content to draw organic traffic without keeping keyword research in mind, says @JohnHall via @CMIContent. #SEO Klicka för att tweeta

However, when you target the right keywords for your business, SEO can be one of the most valuable and highest ROI channels. But how do you identify and prioritize the right keywords? A consistent keyword research process can make your job easier.

Answer these four questions to qualify and find keywords that will deliver for your brand.

Is your site deep enough?

Just because a keyword has low competition doesn’t mean your site will easily rank for it. If you have not written much publicly about the subject, you do not have the necessary topical depth authority. In Google’s eyes, your site – even if your business has decades of experience on this topic – still falls into the newbie category.

To break out of newbie status, make sure you have published at least six articles on that same general topic in the last three months.

Gain topical depth authority by publishing at least six articles in the last three months on the general subject, says @JohnHall via @CMIContent. #SEO Klicka för att tweeta

Is the keyword really valuable?

Possessing topical authority for a keyword doesn’t necessarily mean you should pursue it. Targeted keywords should relate in some way to your business revenue.

For example, a calendar platform site might rank well for the keyword “time management.” But people who search for that phrase are likely looking for information about the topic. They will read the article on the site, but they won’t convert into customers. (I use this example from my knowledge as an investor in

However, if the calendar platform site ranks for the keyword phrase “alternatives to Calendly” on a listicle or internal page, the readers of this content would be 100% interested in the platform’s business offering and convert much better since they are looking for a solution in the space.

A successful SEO strategy should tie to your company’s offerings for maximum ROI. Otherwise, the content won’t really benefit the business in the long term. Choose keywords that have both your topical depth authority and relevance to revenue.

A targeted keyword for which your business can rank but isn’t likely to convert into revenue is not a smart choice, says @JohnHall via @CMIContent. #SEO Klicka för att tweeta

How authoritative is your site?

While topical depth authority grows in importance to Google rankings, general site popularity remains a factor. Your website’s domain authority (DA) indicates how well your pages are likely to rank for the targeted keywords. Use a tool like Moz domain authority checker, Domain Rating from Ahrefs, eller Authority Score from Semrush. Compare your site’s score to the sites already ranking for your target keywords. If your score isn’t close to their scores, you won’t find it easy to rank for that keyword.

In general, companies with high domain authority scores or ratings will have an easier time ranking for competitive keywords. If you’re a smaller company with a low domain authority, spend your time focusing on lower-volume search terms.

How do you spot content competitors’ weaknesses?

The secret sauce to a winning SEO strategy is capitalizing on the weaknesses and problems you find on the search engine results page. Among the weak signals that could indicate positive opportunities to pursue:

  • Page title misses terms in your target keyword
  • Page word count is less than 1,000 words
  • Page takes more than three seconds to load
  • Page was published over six months ago
  • Page is a forum site such as Quora, Reddit, Twitter, Facebook, or LinkedIn
  • Page’s Moz spam score is above 10%
  • Page reading level is at least ninth grade
  • Page mobile user experience is poor

Find a keyword with a few of these weakness indicators in the results for which your company already has the topical depth and domain authority. Then, you can capitalize on them to create content that delivers better for the audience and the search engine results page.

Putting it all together

It can be helpful to start your keyword search using a tool like Ahrefs to get insights into monthly keyword search volumes and competitor domain authority to get a baseline understanding of ranking difficulty. But you still must evaluate the search results to find weaknesses to capitalize on.

A variety of tools can help in that process. TopicRanker shows how to use the data to make better decisions around keyword research. Enter your website’s URL and a topic relevant to your business expertise. (Avoid using generic keywords.)

In this example, I input as the URL with the keyword “sms for marketing.” The results indicate it has a medium keyword difficulty with a search volume of 18,100. It includes the Moz domain authority for the site along with the missing number of words in the meta title, word count, readability score, load time, and spam score.

1679368005 495 Hitta sökord som du faktiskt kan ranka efter med dessa 4The TopicRanker tool can:

  • Analyze your website and inputted keyword
  • Crawl search results for thousands of keywords related to that topic to find specific weaknesses and problems in the SERP
  • Uncover all the search results where the content does a poor job of helping the reader
  • Suggest keywords your company should be able to rank for (usually between five and 10).
  • Break down the SERP results for each suggested keyword, showing competitor weaknesses on which you can capitalize and create a better piece of content

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Making SEO progress

With so much competition for attention, you can’t simply skapa innehåll based on gut feelings. It requires knowing which questions to ask and, more importantly, which answers will lead to the creation of an effective SEO strategy. Failure to do that means you’ll exhaust resources creating content that doesn’t impact your company’s bottom line. But by following this process, you can create winning content that ranks high and brings customers organically.

All tools mentioned in the article are identified by the author. If you have a tool to suggest, please feel free to add it in the comments.

Vill du ha fler tips, insikter och exempel på innehållsmarknadsföring? Prenumerera till arbetsdags- eller veckomail från CMI.


Omslagsbild av Joseph Kalinowski/Content Marketing Institute


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Så här undviker du dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten för GA4



20 Google Analytics-alternativ - Moz

The author’s views are entirely his or her own (excluding the unlikely event of hypnosis) and may not always reflect the views of Moz.

As you’re probably all too aware at this point, GA4 is coming. Old versions of Google Analytics will be switched off for pretty much everyone come June 2023.

While GA4 is improving all the time, there are quite a few things that people are used to seeing in old versions of Analytics which, at the very least, take a bit of creativity in the new world.

One example is how conversions are handled. In the old versions of Google Analytics, a conversion could only fire once per session. In GA4 conversions are just another kind of event, so it’s possible for a conversion to fire multiple times in one session.

Problem is, you might be very interested if someone signs up via your contact-us form once. But that person might reload the thank-you page, or sign up for something else via a different form on the site. That doesn’t mean you necessarily want to track two conversions.

Speaking of signing up via different forms, on some websites, users may wind up on the same thank-you page having taken very different routes to get there. If we don’t have that much control, and we’re having to rely on thank-you page views to track conversions, it can be hard for us to separate out different kinds of conversions.

In old versions of GA you could use funnels with a “required” step. You might have one goal with a funnel requiring your event page, another goal with a funnel requiring a different page, and rely on them to give you different conversions. There also isn’t an obvious way to do this in GA4.

In this post, I’m going to take you through how to:

  • Avoid double counting in GA4.

  • Automatically ignore suspicious conversions (like people landing direct on the conversion page).

  • Recreate the kind of funnels we expected in Universal Analytics (in fact we’ll make them better).

I’ll take you through a few bits in GA4 and others using Google Tag Manager. The GA4 approach is more straightforward, but the Tag Manager is more robust and can help you make sure that all of your conversion pixels are showing roughly the same information (because we’re long past the point where GA is the only place we’re recording conversions).

Managing conversions in GA4

This section is about changes we can make purely through the GA4 interface. As long as you’re sending your page views conversion events to GA4 you should be able to use these tactics without any code changes.

However: There are some limitations of doing things through GA4, for example it can mean that your GA data doesn’t line up with conversions recorded via Övrig platforms.

Avoiding double-counting

Julius Fedorovicius (of Analytics Mania fame) has produced a fantastic guide to making sure that conversions are only recorded once per session.

You should have a read but broadly:

  • You create a custom audience based on a sequence that begins with “session_start”

  • You fire an event when someone enters that audience

  • You use that event as your conversion.

No surprise that Julius has come up with a really smart way to handle the problem of double-counting:

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If you’ve created Segments in Universal Analytics Audience sequences in GA4 look very like the sequences we used to create for Segments. However, the old Segments were just a way of visualizing data, whereas Audiences in GA4 are a way of grouping data. We can use Audiences to create something new.

That distinction is important because we can do cool things like fire custom events when someone enters an audience (which Julius makes use of in this solution).

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Universal Analytics Segment sequence creator

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GA4 Publik sequence creator

The limitations of using Google Analytics audiences

This isn’t really a limitation as far as GA goes but it’s a consideration nonetheless. Julius’ solution is great for making sure we’re not double-counting conversions in GA, but GA probably isn’t the only way we’re recording conversions.

The average site probably has a bunch of separate conversion tracking pixels and those could end up double-counting conversions.

Till exempel: Facebook och Google both describe how they avoid double-counting conversions, but their solutions largely rely on exactly matching transaction IDs, and even if they’re handling it okay, there’s a bunch of smaller fish out there that are also offering conversion tracking and can need a bit more hand-holding.

If we want to make sure that we’re only recording one conversion per session, it’s useful to make sure all of our conversion tracking is working in a similar way. Tag Manager is a great solution for that (I describe a solution in the Tag Manager section below).

You can also run into problems if, for example, your confirmation page is somehow indexed or bookmarked by users — people landing directly on it can lead to weird unexpected conversions. We can also use Tag Manager to guard against that a little bit.

Recreating the conversion funnel

Sticking with the GA4 interface for now, we can also adapt the AnalyticsMania approach to create our funnel-based conversions too by adding additional steps to the sequence.

For what it’s worth, conversion funnels are not the ideal way to categorize conversions. If you can use anything more direct (like the id of the form they’ve filled out, a separate thank-you page) then that’s a much more reliable way to categorize conversions. That said, we don’t live in a perfect world, and sometimes there isn’t the option to completely rebuild your conversion process.

In Fedorovicius’ example we just have two steps in our audience sequence:

  1. Session_start
    Indirectly followed by

  2. Conversion

Which basically means “someone lands on the site and then at any point during their session, they convert”.

To recreate the goal funnels you might be using in Universal Analytics – we can just add another step to the sequence. For instance:

  1. Session_start
    Indirectly followed by

  2. Visiting our event_page
    Indirectly followed by

  3. Landing on our thank you page/converting

That should mean we can create one conversion which is: Users who went through our event page and then converted.

1679342731 649 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

And another conversion which is: Users who went through our sponsorship page and then converted.

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There are some limitations here though, for example, what if someone:

  1. Landed on the site

  2. Visited our event page

  3. Then visited our sponsorship page

  4. Converted using the form on either.

They would fulfill the criteria for our event conversion och the criteria for our sponsorship conversion. We’d record a conversion for each and we’d end up double-counting after all.

This is also a limitation of the old Universal Analytics funnels: Just because a step in the funnel was required doesn’t mean the user can’t wander off around the site between that step and their final conversion. So, if it’s any consolation, this isn’t any worse than old Universal Analytics funnels (but we can still do better).

The problem with using “directly followed by”

You might say “well that’s easily solved — at the moment the sequence says is indirectly followed by and we can just change that to is directly followed by”.

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Surely that would mean that someone is on the sponsorship page and goes directly from the sponsorship page to the thank you page, right?

Unfortunately that’s usually not what “directly followed by” means because there’s all kinds of things that can get recorded in analytics which aren’t page views.

For example if someone lands on the sponsorship page, and then scrolls down and lands on the thank you page, the thank you page view doesn’t directly follow the sponsorship page view. It goes:

  • Page view: sponsorship

  • Scroll

  • Page view: thank you

So “directly followed by” isn’t an easy solution.

How about “within x minutes”?

GA4 has a really cool feature in the sequence builder where we can set a timer in-between steps. Even outside of tracking conversions within a session we can use it to keep track of cool things like people who came to our site, didn’t convert that time, but came back and converted within the next couple days.

Jill Quick has been talking a bunch about how powerful these options are.

We could use this to say something like: person landed on our event page and then landed on our thank you page within 10 minutes.

But as I’m sure you’ve guessed, that ends up being a kind of arbitrary cut off, maybe someone spends some time thinking about how to fill out our form, or maybe someone really quickly goes to one of our other pages and converts there. This could be better than the basic funnel, but we could also end up ignoring completely legitimate conversions.

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So what do we do?

Using GA4 sequences for this is kind of fine, as I say above it’s certainly not worse than Universal Analytics, but we could do better with Google Tag Manager.

Managing conversions in Google Tag Manager

These approaches require you to run all your tracking via Tag Manager. Though even aside

from this, if you’re not already using Tag Manager, I’d advise you to look into it!

Since we need to keep track of what’s happened to a user across multiple pages, these solutions are also going to make use of cookies. In case that fills you with dread, don’t worry:

  • I’m going to walk you through how to create and delete these cookies (it takes a little Javascript but it’s copy-paste and easier than you think!)

  • These aren’t the kinds of cookies designed to give away people’s information to other services.

To reiterate what I say above: While this approach takes a bit more effort than just doing things through Google Analytics it allows us to do two things:

  1. Make sure all of our various tracking tags are firing in the same way

  2. Have more fine grained control, particularly if we’re trying to categorise different paths to conversion.

Avoiding double-counting

To recap what we want to do here, we want to make sure that if someone visits our site and converts we fire a conversion. However, if they revisit a thank you page, or go through a different conversion, we don’t fire a second conversion that session.

To do that, we’re going to:

  • Set a cookie when a user converts.

  • Make sure that the cookie automatically disappears after 30 minutes of inactivity (this is the default timeout for GA4 sessions but if you think that’s too short you can set it to whatever you want).

  • Every time we go to fire a conversion, check if that cookie is present and, if it is, don’t fire the conversion.

That should mean that if someone comes to our site and converts, we’ll set the cookie, and that will stop us from firing any more conversions (GA4 or otherwise) until the user has taken a little time away from the site.

Setting a cookie in JavaScript

The first thing you need to know is that we can use Tag Manager to run any JavaScript we want. The second thing to know is that we can use JavaScript to set cookies.

So first: Go to Google Tag Manager, create a new Tag and select the Custom HTML type

1679342731 289 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

Give the tag the name “[Tag] setCookieConverted” and in the html content paste:


// Get time 30 minutes from now (this is because the default GA session time out

// is half an hour and we want our cookie timeout to match)

var minutesToAdd = 30

var currentTime = new Date(); // Get current time

var newDateObj = new Date(currentTime.getTime() + minutesToAdd*60000); // Add our minutes on

// Set the domain your’re working on, this is because we want our cookies to be

// accessible in subdomains (like if needed

var yourDomain = “”

// Set a cookie called ‘converted’ with the value being ‘true’ which expires in 30 minutes

document.cookie = “converted=true; path=/; domain=”+yourDomain+”; expires=”+newDateObj+”;”


It should look like this:

1679342732 288 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

The custom HTML tag will add the content there to the page, and as soon as the page detects a new script (the one we’ve written) it’ll run that script.

What our script does is:

  • Den hittar aktuell tid och vilken tid det är om en halvtimme.

  • Den använder det och din domän för att ställa in en cookie som kallas "konverterad" som kan läsas av vilken sida som helst på din webbplats.

När du går för att spara din tagg kommer det förmodligen att säga "Inga utlösare valda".

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Tills vidare vi kommer att klicka på "Lägg till utlösare" och välja utlösaren "Alla sidor".

1679342732 18 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

Detta är enbart så att medan vi sätter ihop det här kan vi enkelt testa det..

Läser vårt cookievärde

Tag Manager har ett inbyggt sätt att läsa cookievärden med hjälp av variabler. Så gå till avsnittet variabler, skapa en ny variabel som heter "convertedCookie" och ställ in Cookie Name som "converted".

1679342732 829 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

Om du nu klickar på "Förhandsgranska"-knappen och öppnar din webbplats kan vi börja titta på vilket värde den convertedCookie-variabeln drar igenom för dig.

Klicka på fliken "Variables" och du bör se convertedCookie någonstans i listan. Här är ett exempel med andra cookies blockerade så att du vet vad du ska leta efter.

1679342732 536 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

Så nu kan vi använda värdet på den variabeln i Tag Manager som en del av vår logik.

Använder konverteringscookie i vår konverteringslogik

Allas konverteringsinställningar kommer att vara olika så det kanske inte matchar det du gör exakt men om du funderar på att använda GTM antar jag att du aktiverar konverteringar ungefär så här:

  1. Du har en utlösare baserad på något tillstånd (förmodligen antingen en anpassad händelse eller en sidvisning)

  2. Du har en tagg (eller flera taggar) som skickar din konverteringsinformation när den utlösaren aktiveras.

Vad vi ska göra är att justera din trigger för att lägga till ett annat villkor.

Föreställ dig att din trigger tidigare utlöstes vid varje besök på tacksidan:

1679342732 47 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

Vad vi ska göra är att lägga till ett andra villkor till utlösaren:

konverterad Cookie innehåller inte Sann

1679342732 249 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

Även om det här exemplet använder sökvägen till tacksidan, behöver det inte, det kan vara vad som helst.

När du har gjort den här ändringen kan du gå och testa din konvertering. Eftersom du har en annan tagg som lägger till den konverterade cookien på varje sidvisning, bör din konvertering inte aktiveras när den normalt skulle göra det.

Nu behöver vi bara ändra vår konverterade cookie så att den bara visas efter att någon har konverterat.

För närvarande ställer vi in den "konverterade" cookien på varje sidvisning, så vi kommer aldrig att få några omvandlingar.

Vi måste uppdatera det så:

  • Vi lägger en cookie när någon konverterar.

  • Varje gång vi laddar en sida, om personen är markerad som "konverterad" vi återställa kakan (jag ska förklara).

Lägger en cookie endast när någon har konverterat

Först: vi måste ta bort avtryckaren från [Tag] setCookieConverted så den brinner inte alls.

Sedan går vi till vilken tagg vi än använder för att skicka vår konvertering, öppnar "Avancerade inställningar", klickar på "Taggsekvensering" och väljer "Avfyra en tagg efter".

Sedan väljer vi vår setCookieConverted-tagg och markerar "Avfyra inte om konverteringstaggen misslyckas".

1679342732 128 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

Detta borde betyda att när vi skickar vår konvertering, kommer vi automatiskt att aktivera vår cookie-tagg och markera användaren som konverterad.

Så nu är vår logik:

  • Om någon konverterar kontrollerar vi om det finns en cookie som säger att de nyligen konverterat redan.

  • Om de don’t har den cookien vi skickar en konvertering.

  • Sedan ställer vi automatiskt in den kakan.

För att testa detta kan du antingen rensa kakan eller vänta tills den tar slut. Här är instruktioner för hur du rensar cookies i Google Chrome (som du förmodligen använder om du arbetar med tagghanteraren).

Om du nu kom in i GTM-förhandsgranskningen och klickar dig runt bör du kunna titta på dina variabler och se att convertedCookie är tillbaka till att vara "odefinierad".

1679342733 561 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

Om du konverterar bör du se att båda taggarna aktiveras – din konverteringstagg och din setCookieConverted-tagg.

1679342733 564 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

Men om du konverterar igen (ladda om sidan, fyll i formuläret igen, vad du än måste göra) du bör se att ingen av taggarna aktiveras.

Grattis! Du filtrerar dina konverteringar för att undvika att registrera en konvertering mer än en gång för någon under ett 30-minutersfönster.

Vi vill bara göra en sista justering nu.

Uppdaterar kakan om den har satts

Vår cookie har 30 minuters giltighetstid. Det betyder att den kommer att sitta kvar i 30 minuter och sedan automatiskt raderas från webbläsaren. Men vad händer om någon hänger på vår hemsida i mer än en halvtimme, läser ett blogginlägg eller något och konverterar igen?

För att hjälpa till med det kommer vi att lägga till ytterligare en utlösare som kontrollerar om användaren nyligen har konverterat, och om de har gjort det, uppdaterar kakan med varje ny sidladdning.

Gå tillbaka till [Tag] setCookieConverted

Vid denna tidpunkt bör den inte ha några utlösare. Vi kommer att lägga till en igen.

1679342733 952 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

Klicka på det blå plustecknet på den här skärmen och igen på nästa skärm som kommer upp kommer vi att skapa en ny trigger.

I den nya triggern ställer vi in den så att den bara aktiveras vid sidvisningar där convertedCookie innehåller true.

1679342733 469 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

Så det här blir lite cirkulärt, men i grunden:

  • När någon konverterar sätter vi en "konverterad" cookie för nästa halvtimme.

  • Varje gång någon laddar en sida, om de har en "konverterad" cookie vi återställa den kakan i ytterligare 30 minuter.

  • Om användaren vid något tillfälle inte laddar en ny sida på 30 minuter, kommer cookien att förfalla, vilket innebär att vår uppdatering inte kommer att utlösas.

Du kan testa detta genom att klicka dig runt på din webbplats med GTM-förhandsgranskningen. När du har konverterat, [Tag] setCookieConverted ska aktiveras vid varje ny sidladdning.


Allt du behöver göra nu är att se till det all av dina konverteringstaggar använder samma trigger (den som har villkoret att convertedCookie inte är "true"). När det väl har ställts in bör de alla bete sig likadant – bara registrera en konvertering per session om inte någon rensar sina cookies eller bara hänger på en sida under en mycket länge sedan.

Vad händer om vi upptäcker att vi får konstiga omvandlingar där användare inte har besökt några andra sidor på webbplatsen?

Jag har arbetat med sajter tidigare där:

  • Det finns användbar information på tacksidan och användare har hållit den öppen/återkommer till den.

  • Bekräftelsesidor har indexerats i Google eller så hittar folk till konverteringssidan på annat sätt.

Det kan leda till konstiga spårade konverteringar som inte motsvarar faktiska konverteringar. Även om dessa problem bör lösas vid källan, kan vi också rensa upp vår analys genom att använda stegen i "Skapa en konverteringstratt" nedan.

Skapa en konverteringstratt

Detta bygger vidare på kakinblandningen vi har gjort i det senaste avsnittet, så om du inte har läst den biten är det värt att ta en titt!

Om du inte är här för att du vill ha en specifik tratt utan för att du vill hantera konstiga omvandlingar där användare bara landar direkt på omvandlingssidan – oroa dig inte, du följer dessa instruktioner exakt likadant, du ställer bara in triggern för varje sida förutom din omvandlingssida (jag tar dig igenom det).

Ange en "sökväg"-cookie

Precis som den "konverterade" cookien tidigare, kommer vi att skapa en ny cookie som registrerar platsen för den aktuella sidan.

Skapa en ny tagg som heter [Tag] setCookiePath, välj "Anpassad HTML" och lägg till följande JavaScript


// Get time 30 minutes from now (this is because the default GA session time out

// is half an hour and we want our cookie timeout to match)

var minutesToAdd = 30

var currentTime = new Date(); // Get current time

var newDateObj = new Date(currentTime.getTime() + minutesToAdd*60000); // Add our minutes on

// Set the domain your’re working on, this is because we want our cookies to be

// accessible in subdomains (like if needed

var yourDomain = “”

var pagePathName = window.location.pathname // Hämta plats för aktuell sida

// Set a cookie called ‘converted’ with the value being ‘true’ which expires in 30 minutes

document.cookie = “conversionPath=”+plats+”; sökväg=/; domain="+dinDomän+"; expires="+newDateObj+";"


It should look like this:

1679342733 351 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

Detta kommer att spara en cookie som registrerar platsen för sidan. Första gången den laddas kommer den att skapa en ny cookie med den informationen, varje gång efter det kommer den att ersätta värdet.

Vi kommer att använda detta för att se till att den kanalsida som vår användare senast interagerade med är den vi spelar in.

Utlöses på dina trattsidor

När vi skapar vår "tratt" antar vi att det finns vissa sidor som en användare går igenom för att konvertera. Så vi kommer att ställa in detta på att triggas endast när en av dessa trattsidor är inblandad.

I din [Tag] setCookiePath tagg – klicka för att lägga till en ny utlösare och skapa en ny utlösare.

Vi kommer att konfigurera vår tagg så att den aktiveras vid varje användarklick. Detta innebär att om en användare hoppar mellan olika trattsidor kommer var och en att skriva över cookien när de klickar runt men bara den de interagerat med sista kommer att vara den som fastnar i cookievärdet.

1679342733 200 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

Hämta vår trattCookie

Som i instruktionerna för dubbelräkning, skapa en ny variabel. Men den här gången, kalla det funnelCookie och ställ in "Cookie Name" till conversionPath.

1679342733 139 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

När du har gjort det bör du kunna testa genom att använda förhandsgranskning, gå till valfri gammal sida på din webbplats (så länge det inte är en av dina trattsidor) och kontrollera funnelCookie i variablerna (den bör vara odefinierad).

1679342733 677 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

Gå sedan till en av dina trattsidor, du bör kunna se cookieändringen.

1679342734 966 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

När du besöker andra sidor på webbplatsen bör funnelCookie förbli densamma, såvida inte du besöker en annan trattsida.

Ändra våra konverteringar baserat på trattenCookie

Nu finns det smarta saker du kan göra här med att extrahera värdet av funnelCookie och lägga in det i en variabel i din konverteringstagg, men inställningen för varje tagg kommer att vara annorlunda och jag vill ge dig ett alternativ om du inte är det kunna att göra det.

Detta kommer att skapa en liten lite mer röra i ditt Tag Manager-konto eftersom du kommer att duplicera några av dina trigger- och konverteringstaggar.

Låt oss först gå tillbaka till konverteringstriggern vi arbetade med tidigare. Det såg ut så här när vi lämnade det:

1679342732 249 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

Vi kommer att lägga till i ett annat tillstånd:

trattCookie innehåller händelse-sida

1679342734 351 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

Detta betyder nu att denna konvertering kommer endast brand om den sista trattsidan som vår användare gick igenom var händelsesidan.

Efter detta kan vi duplicera den här utlösaren, våra konverteringstaggar och, för vår andra uppsättning omvandlingar, ändra trattenCookie-värdet för utlösaren.

Kanske gör vi det istället:

trattCookieinnehåller formulärsida

1679342734 361 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

Nu har du två uppsättningar omvandlingar, som var och en aktiveras baserat på vilken trattsida användaren gick igenom. Därifrån kan du redigera de värden som skickas.

Ett par varningar

Istället för att duplicera våra konverteringstaggar skulle det vara det much bättre att dra in värdet på variabeln funnelCookie och använda den för att bara dynamiskt ändra några av värdena vi skickar som en del av konverteringen.

Med detta tillvägagångssätt riskerar du också inte registrera några konverteringar alls om en användare inte har gått igenom en av dina kanalsidor. Det kan vara vad du vill, men det är värt att ha den risken i åtanke om du tror att folk kan ta legitima men ovanliga vägar till konvertering.

Även om jag inte kan ta dig genom processen att uppdatera alla dina konverteringstaggar, är ett alternativ för att göra denna information mer redo för att fylla i konverteringstaggar (och eventuellt ställa in en reserv om du vill undvika att förlora konverteringar) att använda en uppslagstabell som denna, där du tar funnelCookie-värdet och kategoriserar värdena.

1679342735 73 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

Sedan istället för att lägga till funnelCookie-värdet i din trigger, behåller du triggern densamma och drar in uppslagstabellvärdet.

Utlöses på vilken sida som helst förutom din konverteringssida

Om du inte är orolig för att konstruera sidkanaler men vill försäkra dig om att användarna har besökt dem minst en sida innan du konverterar. Det finns ett par ändringar:

1679342735 791 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten

  • Du bryr dig inte om att skapa olika konverteringsflöden, du har bara ett flöde, men du lägger ändå till ett funnelCookie-krav som säger att din funnelCookie måste vara någon sida snarare än odefinierat

1679342735 697 Hur man undviker dubbletter av konverteringar och återskapar konverteringstratten


Förhoppningsvis har detta hjälpt dig att få en uppfattning om hur du kan få mer kontroll över de konverteringar som registreras på din webbplats, oavsett om det är helt genom GA4 eller med hjälp av kraften i Tag Manager.

Lycka till med spårningen!


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