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FAQs, How To Set Up & Time-Saving Tips



FAQs, How To Set Up & Time-Saving Tips

As the world’s largest social network, Facebook can be a great way for marketers to reach their target audiences through ads.

With approximately 2.70 billion monthly active users, this is a digital channel worth targeting.

But how can you be sure you’re making the most of your precious budget if you’re new to Facebook advertising?

Here are some Facebook ads tips to get you started and help give you an edge on this popular platform.

3 Quick-Fire Answers To Common Facebook Ads Questions

First, let’s address a few of the greatest concerns and questions people have around Facebook advertising.

How Much Does Facebook Advertising Cost?

When it comes to the cost of a Facebook ad, it really depends.

Recent research by AdEspresso reveals that the primary factors that impact the cost of Facebook ads are:

  • Timing: Time and day the Facebook ad shows.
  • Bidding strategy: Lowest cost or a specific bid cap.
  • Ad placement: Higher-competition placements cost more.
  • Ad relevance: Low scores engagement ranking, quality ranking, or conversion ranking can increase the costs of the Facebook ad.
  • Target audience: Higher competition audiences cost more with Facebook ad campaigns.

AdEspresso also calculated the average cost per click:

  • Impressions: $0.98.
  • Reach: $1.03.
  • Lead generation: $0.67.
  • Conversions: $0.25.
  • Link clicks: $0.16.

How Does Facebook Advertising Work?

Facebook advertising is sorted by campaigns.

A new Facebook campaign can have one or several Facebook ads in it.

Facebook ads target users based on their location, demographic, and profile information.

The ad will then appear on the person’s screen as they scroll through their Facebook feed.

Views are recorded as impressions.

Likes and comments on Facebook ads are recorded as engagement.

Clicks – which can take the person to another website, an online store, or a Facebook page or offer, depending on the campaign objective – are recorded as clicks, cost per click, click-through rate, and more.

You can read How Facebook Ads Actually Work to learn more.

Are Facebook Ads Worth It?

Facebook ads are 100% worth it if you’re looking to get more visibility, generate more leads, and convert more customers.

Start By Setting Up Your Facebook Ads Manager Account

To start advertising on Facebook, you first need to set up your Facebook Ads Manager account.

  1. Log into Facebook.
  2. Select Menu and Ad from the drop-down menu in the top right corner.
  3. At the bottom, click on the Got to Ads Manager prompt at the bottom left corner.

Facebook Ads Manager will create an account for you and guide you through setting up your first ad campaign.

You can also create Facebook Ads and your new Facebook ad campaign through your Facebook Business Manager account by clicking the drop-down arrow in the upper-right corner of your Facebook page and selecting Ads Manager.

It’s Time To Create Your First Facebook Ads Campaign

Click on the + Create button in the Campaigns tab, and let’s jump into Facebook advertising!

Step 1: Identify Your Goal

First, decide what you want your Facebook ad campaigns to do. Do you need more website traffic?

Do you want to grow your email database through lead gen?

What do you want Facebook users to do with your Facebook ad?

Facebook Ads provides 11 objectives to support your overarching objective.

Choose one.

  • Brand awareness: Make non-customers aware of your brand.
  • Reach: Let your advert and message reach a wider scope of your target audience.
  • Traffic: Direct clicks and visits to a specific website, mobile app, or Facebook Messenger chat.
  • Engagement: Raise the volume of post engagements, Likes, Page follows, or event engagement.
  • App installations: Increase downloads for your application.
  • Video views: Get more views on your videos.
  • Lead gen: Capture more potential customers and leads into your funnel.
  • Conversations: Improve engagement with your business through Facebook Messenger.
  • Conversions: Get the desired outcome or action (such as subscribe, download, etc.) on your landing page, web app, or Facebook Messenger.
  • Product sales: Integrate Facebook ads with your product catalog so that people see ads for items they are more likely to buy.
  • Store traffic: Direct more customers to your physical store.

Conversion-based objectives (like sales and installs) on your Facebook advertising campaigns will be charged per action, and exposure-based goals (like website visits and views) will be charged per impression.

Step 2: Set Your Budget And Schedule

Image from Facebook, March 2022

Enter the name of your Facebook ad campaign at the top of this screen.

This is just for your records. Set and choose the page to promote.

Set your budget by choosing a daily or lifetime budget, as well as the start and end dates.

You can schedule your ad to go live in the future or choose to publish it right away.

Facebook Ads Tip: Leverage Campaign Budget Optimization

Campaign Budget Optimization (CBO) is a feature provided by Facebook advertising that could be worth utilizing.

CBO allows you to determine your budget at a campaign level rather than the ad set stage.

Doing so will allow Facebook to optimize your budget across different ad sets within the campaign.

Why is this good?

The bulk of your budget will be spent on the target audience or audiences that bring better results.

This should result in more conversions and a lower cost per conversion.

Step 3: Select Your Audience

Scroll down a bit further to build your target audience.

Facebook Ads Tip: Use custom audiences.

Your first choice – and we think the best – is for a custom audience.

This might be alarming for a first-time Facebook Ads user, but here are the tips you need to win at Facebook Ads custom audiences.

Most businesses find their ideal customer by targeting people already familiar with their brand.

These include:

  • Old and current customers.
  • Website visitors.
  • Facebook page followers.
  • Etc.

Directing your Facebook ads to these warmer groups of people will get a better result than if you were targeting a cold audience base.

This is done through the creation of custom audiences.

We recommend starting with your customer file and website visitors.

However, if you cannot create a custom audience, use the audience builder provided by Facebook.

Choose your target location (city, country, etc.), age, gender, and language.

Detailed targeting in your Facebook ad campaign allows you to keep or remove an audience based on their demographics, what they are interested in, and their behaviors.

Use this to micro-focus, for example, selecting those interested in car and household insurance, but not life insurance.

You can also include or exclude those who follow your Facebook page or application or have attended or joined an online event for a warmer lead.

Tip: Make Use Of Facebook Lookalike Audiences

Facebook also provides lookalike audiences.

This type of audience replicates an existing audience to help you find people you have already identified as your ideal customer.

This means you can use your existing leads or customers (100 or more), upload this list to Facebook, and Facebook Ads can send your ads to people who are like your ideal customer.

Step 4: Select Where Your Facebook Ads Are Placed

Further down the page, you can identify where your Facebook ads will appear.

Facebook Ads Tip: Utilize Automatic Placements

By selecting this option, Facebook automatically places your advertisements across their platforms: Facebook, Instagram, Messenger, and the Audience Network.

They decide which platforms to deploy the ad on to get optimal results.

Step 5: Set Brand Safety And Bidding Strategy

Next, you can scroll down to the Brand Safety section.

You can choose to avoid sensitive content, and add specific blocklists such as specific websites, videos, and publishers.

Facebook Ads Tip: Choose The Lowest Cost Bid Strategy

Here is a Facebook Ads tip that is not widely known.

Facebook offers two Facebook ad bidding strategies:

  • Lowest Cost: Facebook Ads defaults to this, so most Facebook campaigns use this strategy, and this is recommended.
  • Target Cost: This could be the better bidding strategy for you if you want to grow an ad campaign or let it continue running for a while.

The potential reach and conversion estimates appear on the right side of the screen. These are just estimates and can be used as a guide.

Step 6: Create Your Facebook Ad

There are a bunch of ad formats to choose from.

Our tip is that you test out different Facebook ads to find out what works best for your audience.

  • Newsfeed Ad: These show up in your newsfeed.
  • Right Column Ad: Pretty basic ad, with a headline, description, and single image. Works on desktop.
  • Lead Ads: Allows quick opt-in to newsletters and quotes directly from their mobile devices. Contact details auto-populate in the form fields.
  • Carousel Ads: Also known as multi-product ads, allow you to showcase up to 10 images and links with each ad.
  • Dynamic Product Ads (DPA): Remarketing ads that target users who had past actions or inactions on your site are timed to perfection.
  • Page Post Links: Ideal for promoting your external website. Describe your offer with a large feature image, post text, and link description.
  • Canvas Ads: Mobile-optimized option; these ads are an animated storytelling ad type.
  • Event Ads: Ideal for a specific event.
  • Offer Ads: Best to increase redemption rates.
  • Mobile App Install Ads: Promote your app install on mobile and connect your Apple App Store or Google Play account.
  • Desktop App Install Ads: The desktop Facebook app version of Mobile App Install Ads.
  • GIF Ads: These are like a standard newsfeed ad, but with the GIF creativity included.

6 Slick Tips On How To Get Creative With Facebook Ads

It starts with a captivating headline.

Your headline impacts the click-through rate (CTR) and the cost-per-click (CPC).

A recent study revealed that 59% of people do not read more than the headline of a Facebook share before commenting and sharing.

Thankfully, Facebook Ads allows us to carry out multiple A/B tests to discover which headline people respond to!

Here’s how to write a great headline.

Keep Your Headline Short

A recent study found that headlines with 60-100 characters get the highest click-through rates.

Your headline needs to be short and catchy.

Use Emotive Words

Use your power words in your headline.

Words like:

  • Instant.
  • Free.
  • Right now.
  • Startling.
  • Reveal.
  • You.

Here’s Buffer’s list of 898 power words if you need more.

Use Numbers

You can also use numbers. People prefer to click on an ad with a headline that starts with a number.

Consider including these numbers in your Facebook ads:

  • Value of the discount.
  • Length of the free trial period.
  • Number of customers.

Create A Sense Of Urgency

Scarcity and urgency inspire consumers to take action.

Ensure your ad has some kind of deadline, limitation, or cut-off.

Use Clear Calls-To-Action And Your “Doing Words”

Where is the best place for your call to action or verb?

Right there in your ad’s headline.

Include words like ‘get, download, start.’

Be specific and relevant, e.g., “Start learning today” or “Get your free trial.”

Avoid Stock Images And Use Videos Where You Can

Real photos perform better than stock photos, with nearly 35% of website visitors more likely to sign up when they see the real image.

Facebook video ads increase clicks and lower CPC and are just as easy to create as regular image ads.

To create a Facebook video ad, go to Facebook Ads Manager, create a new campaign, and upload a video.

Now You’re Ready To Track And Optimize Facebook Ads Performance

The Facebook Ads Manager dashboard lets you track your campaigns closely.

This ensures you invest in an ad that’s performing well rather than a campaign that isn’t.

Add the Facebook Pixel to your website landing page to track how your ads perform.

In the beginning, you may want to run a few ads with small audiences and budgets.

From this, you will better understand which is the best performing ad that can become the primary campaign once you have determined what works best.

So, now you have what you need to get started on Facebook Ads.

No matter what level of Facebook ad expertise you demonstrate, you now have the tips and tricks necessary to get your product in front of the customers you are most interested in reaching.

More resources:

Featured Image: Fonstra/Shutterstock

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Technical SEO Checklist for 2024: A Comprehensive Guide



Technical SEO Checklist 2024 Comprehensive Strategies

Technical SEO Checklist 2024 Comprehensive Strategies

With Google getting a whopping total of six algorithmic updates and four core updates in 2023, you can bet the search landscape is more complicated (and competitive) to navigate nowadays.

To succeed in SEO this year, you will need to figure out what items to check and optimize to ensure your website stays visible. And if your goal is to not just make your website searchable, but have it rank at the top of search engine results, this technical SEO checklist for 2024 is essential.

Webmaster’s Note: This is part one of our three-part SEO checklist for 2024. I also have a longer guide on advanced technical SEO, which covers best practices and how to troubleshoot and solve common technical issues with your websites.

Technical SEO Essentials for 2024

Technical SEO refers to optimizations that are primarily focused on helping search engines access, crawl, interpret, and index your website without any issues. It lays the foundation for your site to be properly understood and served up by search engines to users.

1. Website Speed Optimization

A site’s loading speed is a significant ranking factor for search engines like Google, which prioritize user experience. Faster websites generally provide a more pleasant user experience, leading to increased engagement and improved conversion rates.

Server Optimization

Often, the reason why your website is loading slowly is because of the server it’s hosted on. It’s important to choose a high-quality server that ensures quick loading times from the get-go so you skip the headache that is server optimization.

Google recommends keeping your server response time under 200ms. To check your server’s response time, you need to know your website’s IP address. Once you have that, use your command prompt.

In the window that appears, type ping, followed by your website’s IP address. Press enter and the window should show how long it took your server to respond. 

If you find that your server goes above the recommended 200ms loading time, here’s what you need to check:

  1. Collect the data from your server and identify what is causing your response time to increase. 
  2. Based on what is causing the problem, you will need to implement server-side optimizations. This guide on how to reduce initial server response times can help you here.
  3. Measure your server response times after optimization to use as a benchmark. 
  4. Monitor any regressions after optimization.

If you work with a hosting service, then you should contact them when you need to improve server response times. A good hosting provider should have the right infrastructure, network connections, server hardware, and support services to accommodate these optimizations. They may also offer hosting options if your website needs more server resources to run smoothly.

Website Optimization

Aside from your server, there are a few other reasons that your website might be loading slowly. 

Here are some practices you can do:

  1. Compressing images to decrease file sizes without sacrificing quality
  2. Minimizing the code, eliminating unnecessary spaces, comments, and indentation.
  3. Using caching to store some data locally in a user’s browser to allow for quicker loading on subsequent visits.
  4. Implementing Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) to distribute the load, speeding up access for users situated far from the server.
  5. Lazy load your web pages to prioritize loading the objects or resources only your users need.

A common tool to evaluate your website speed is Google’s PageSpeed Insights or Google Lighthouse. Both tools can analyze the content of your website and then generate suggestions to improve its overall loading speed, all for free. There are also some third-party tools, like GTMetrix, that you could use as well.

Here’s an example of one of our website’s speeds before optimization. It’s one of the worst I’ve seen, and it was affecting our SEO.

slow site speed score from GTMetrixslow site speed score from GTMetrix

So we followed our technical SEO checklist. After working on the images, removing render-blocking page elements, and minifying code, the score greatly improved — and we saw near-immediate improvements in our page rankings. 

site speed optimization results from GTMetrixsite speed optimization results from GTMetrix

That said, playing around with your server settings, coding, and other parts of your website’s backend can mess it up if you don’t know what you’re doing. I suggest backing up all your files and your database before you start working on your website speed for that reason. 

2. Mobile-First Indexing

Mobile-first Indexing is a method used by Google that primarily uses the mobile version of the content for indexing and ranking. 

It’s no secret that Google places a priority on the mobile users’ experience, what with mobile-first indexing being used. Beyond that, optimizing your website for mobile just makes sense, given that a majority of people now use their phones to search online.

This change signifies that a fundamental shift in your approach to your website development and design is needed, and it should also be part of your technical SEO checklist.

  1. Ensuring the mobile version of your site contains the same high-quality, rich content as the desktop version.
  2. Make sure metadata is present on both versions of your site.
  3. Verify that structured data is present on both versions of your site.

Tools like Google’s mobile-friendly test can help you measure how effectively your mobile site is performing compared to your desktop versions, and to other websites as well.

3. Crawlability & Indexing Check

Always remember that crawlability and Indexing are the cornerstones of SEO. Crawlability refers to a search engine’s ability to access and crawl through a website’s content. Indexing is how search engines organize information after a crawl and before presenting results.

  1. Utilizing a well-structured robots.txt file to communicate with web crawlers about which of your pages should not be processed or scanned.
  2. Using XML sitemaps to guide search engines through your site’s content and ensure that all valuable content is found and indexed. There are several CMS plugins you can use to generate your sitemap.
  3. Ensuring that your website has a logical structure with a clear hierarchy, helps both users and bots navigate to your most important pages easily. 

Google Search Console is the tool you need to use to ensure your pages are crawled and indexed by Google. It also provides reports that identify any problems that prevent crawlers from indexing your pages. 

4. Structured Data Markup

Structured Data Markup is a coding language that communicates website information in a more organized and richer format to search engines. This plays a strategic role in the way search engines interpret and display your content, enabling enhanced search results through “rich snippets” such as stars for reviews, prices for products, or images for recipes.

Doing this allows search engines to understand and display extra information directly in the search results from it.

Key Takeaway

With all the algorithm changes made in 2023, websites need to stay adaptable and strategic to stay at the top of the search results page. Luckily for you, this technical SEO checklist for 2024 can help you do just that. Use this as a guide to site speed optimization, indexing, and ensuring the best experience for mobile and desktop users.

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Why Google Seems To Favor Big Brands & Low-Quality Content




Why Google Seems To Favor Big Brands & Low-Quality Content

Many people are convinced that Google shows a preference for big brands and ranking low quality content, something that many feel has become progressively worse. This may not be a matter of perception, something is going on, nearly everyone has an anecdote of poor quality search results. The possible reasons for it are actually quite surprising.

Google Has Shown Favoritism In The Past

This isn’t the first time that Google’s search engine results pages (SERPs) have shown a bias that favored big brand websites. During the early years of Google’s algorithm it was obvious that sites with a lot of PageRank ranked for virtually anything they wanted.

For example, I remember a web design company that built a lot of websites, creating a network of backlinks, raising their PageRank to a remarkable level normally seen only in big corporate sites like IBM. As a consequence they ranked for the two-word keyword phrase, Web Design and virtually every other variant like Web Design + [any state in the USA].

Everyone knew that websites with a PageRank of 10, the highest level shown on Google’s toolbar, practically had a free pass in the SERPs, resulting in big brand sites outranking more relevant webpages. It didn’t go unnoticed when Google eventually adjusted their algorithm to fix this issue.

The point of this anecdote is to point out an instance of where Google’s algorithm unintentionally created a bias that favored big brands.

Here are are other  algorithm biases that publishers exploited:

  • Top 10 posts
  • Longtail “how-to” articles
  • Misspellings
  • Free Widgets in footer that contained links (always free to universities!)

Big Brands And Low Quality Content

There are two things that have been a constant for all of Google’s history:

  • Low quality content
  • Big brands crowding out small independent publishers

Anyone that’s ever searched for a recipe knows that the more general the recipe the lower the quality of recipe that gets ranked. Search for something like cream of chicken soup and the main ingredient for nearly every recipe is two cans of chicken soup.

A search for Authentic Mexican Tacos results in recipes with these ingredients:

  • Soy sauce
  • Ground beef
  • “Cooked chicken”
  • Taco shells (from the store!)
  • Beer

Not all recipe SERPs are bad. But some of the more general recipes Google ranks are so basic that a hobo can cook them on a hotplate.

Robin Donovan (Instagram), a cookbook author and online recipe blogger observed:

“I think the problem with google search rankings for recipes these days (post HCU) are much bigger than them being too simple.

The biggest problem is that you get a bunch of Reddit threads or sites with untested user-generated recipes, or scraper sites that are stealing recipes from hardworking bloggers.

In other words, content that is anything but “helpful” if what you want is a tested and well written recipe that you can use to make something delicious.”

Explanations For Why Google’s SERPs Are Broken

It’s hard not to get away from the perception that Google’s rankings for a variety of topics always seem to default to big brand websites and low quality webpages.

Small sites grow to become big brands that dominate the SERPs, it happens. But that’s the thing, even when a small site gets big, it’s now another big brand dominating the SERPs.

Typical explanations for poor SERPs:

  • It’s a conspiracy to increase ad clicks
  • Content itself these days are low quality across the board
  • Google doesn’t have anything else to rank
  • It’s the fault of SEOs
  • Affiliates
  • Poor SERPs is Google’s scheme to drive more ad clicks
  • Google promotes big brands because [insert your conspiracy]

So what’s going on?

People Love Big Brands & Garbage Content

The recent Google anti-trust lawsuit exposed the importance of the Navboost algorithm signals as a major ranking factor. Navboost is an algorithm that interprets user engagement signals to understand what topics a webpage is relevant for, among other things.

The idea of using engagement signals as an indicator of what users expect to see makes sense. After all, Google is user-centric and who better to decide what’s best for users than the users themselves, right?

Well, consider that arguably the the biggest and most important song of 1991, Smells Like Teen Spirt by Nirvana, didn’t make the Billboard top 100 for that year. Michael Bolton and Rod Stewart made the list twice, with Rod Stewart top ranked for a song called “The Motown Song” (anyone remember that one?)

Nirvana didn’t make the charts until the next year…

My opinion, given that we know that user interactions are a strong ranking signal, is that Google’s search rankings follow a similar pattern related to users’ biases.

People tend to choose what they know. It’s called a Familiarity Bias.

Consumers have a habit of choosing things that are familiar over those that are unfamiliar. This preference shows up in product choices that prefer brands, for example.

Behavioral scientist, Jason Hreha, defines Familiarity Bias like this:

“The familiarity bias is a phenomenon in which people tend to prefer familiar options over unfamiliar ones, even when the unfamiliar options may be better. This bias is often explained in terms of cognitive ease, which is the feeling of fluency or ease that people experience when they are processing familiar information. When people encounter familiar options, they are more likely to experience cognitive ease, which can make those options seem more appealing.”

Except for certain queries (like those related to health), I don’t think Google makes an editorial decision to certain kinds of websites, like brands.

Google uses many signals for ranking. But Google is strongly user focused.

I believe it’s possible that strong user preferences can carry a more substantial weight than Reviews System signals. How else to explain why Google seemingly has a bias for big brand websites with fake reviews rank better than honest independent review sites?

It’s not like Google’s algorithms haven’t created poor search results in the past.

  • Google’s Panda algorithm was designed to get rid of a bias for cookie cutter content.
  • The Reviews System is a patch to fix Google’s bias for content that’s about reviews but aren’t necessarily reviews.

If Google has systems for catching low quality sites that their core algorithm would otherwise rank, why do big brands and poor quality content still rank?

I believe the answer is that is what users prefer to see those sites, as indicated by user interaction signals.

The big question to ask is whether Google will continue to rank what users biases and inexperience trigger user satisfaction signals.  Or will Google continue serving the sugar-frosted bon-bons that users crave?

Should Google make the choice to rank quality content at the risk that users find it too hard to understand?

Or should publishers give up and focus on creating for the lowest common denominator like the biggest popstars do?

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Google Announces Gemma: Laptop-Friendly Open Source AI




Google Announces Gemma: Laptop-Friendly Open Source AI

Google released an open source large language model based on the technology used to create Gemini that is powerful yet lightweight, optimized to be used in environments with limited resources like on a laptop or cloud infrastructure.

Gemma can be used to create a chatbot, content generation tool and pretty much anything else that a language model can do. This is the tool that SEOs have been waiting for.

It is released in two versions, one with two billion parameters (2B) and another one with seven billion parameters (7B). The number of parameters indicates the model’s complexity and potential capability. Models with more parameters can achieve a better understanding of language and generate more sophisticated responses, but they also require more resources to train and run.

The purpose of releasing Gemma is to democratize access to state of the art Artificial Intelligence that is trained to be safe and responsible out of the box, with a toolkit to further optimize it for safety.

Gemma By DeepMind

The model is developed to be lightweight and efficient which makes it ideal for getting it into the hands of more end users.

Google’s official announcement noted the following key points:

  • “We’re releasing model weights in two sizes: Gemma 2B and Gemma 7B. Each size is released with pre-trained and instruction-tuned variants.
  • A new Responsible Generative AI Toolkit provides guidance and essential tools for creating safer AI applications with Gemma.
  • We’re providing toolchains for inference and supervised fine-tuning (SFT) across all major frameworks: JAX, PyTorch, and TensorFlow through native Keras 3.0.
  • Ready-to-use Colab and Kaggle notebooks, alongside integration with popular tools such as Hugging Face, MaxText, NVIDIA NeMo and TensorRT-LLM, make it easy to get started with Gemma.
  • Pre-trained and instruction-tuned Gemma models can run on your laptop, workstation, or Google Cloud with easy deployment on Vertex AI and Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE).
  • Optimization across multiple AI hardware platforms ensures industry-leading performance, including NVIDIA GPUs and Google Cloud TPUs.
  • Terms of use permit responsible commercial usage and distribution for all organizations, regardless of size.”

Analysis Of Gemma

According to an analysis by an Awni Hannun, a machine learning research scientist at Apple, Gemma is optimized to be highly efficient in a way that makes it suitable for use in low-resource environments.

Hannun observed that Gemma has a vocabulary of 250,000 (250k) tokens versus 32k for comparable models. The importance of that is that Gemma can recognize and process a wider variety of words, allowing it to handle tasks with complex language. His analysis suggests that this extensive vocabulary enhances the model’s versatility across different types of content. He also believes that it may help with math, code and other modalities.

It was also noted that the “embedding weights” are massive (750 million). The embedding weights are a reference to the parameters that help in mapping words to representations of their meanings and relationships.

An important feature he called out is that the embedding weights, which encode detailed information about word meanings and relationships, are used not just in processing input part but also in generating the model’s output. This sharing improves the efficiency of the model by allowing it to better leverage its understanding of language when producing text.

For end users, this means more accurate, relevant, and contextually appropriate responses (content) from the model, which improves its use in conetent generation as well as for chatbots and translations.

He tweeted:

“The vocab is massive compared to other open source models: 250K vs 32k for Mistral 7B

Maybe helps a lot with math / code / other modalities with a heavy tail of symbols.

Also the embedding weights are big (~750M params), so they get shared with the output head.”

In a follow-up tweet he also noted an optimization in training that translates into potentially more accurate and refined model responses, as it enables the model to learn and adapt more effectively during the training phase.

He tweeted:

“The RMS norm weight has a unit offset.

Instead of “x * weight” they do “x * (1 + weight)”.

I assume this is a training optimization. Usually the weight is initialized to 1 but likely they initialize close to 0. Similar to every other parameter.”

He followed up that there are more optimizations in data and training but that those two factors are what especially stood out.

Designed To Be Safe And Responsible

An important key feature is that it is designed from the ground up to be safe which makes it ideal for deploying for use. Training data was filtered to remove personal and sensitive information. Google also used reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF) to train the model for responsible behavior.

It was further debugged with manual re-teaming, automated testing and checked for capabilities for unwanted and dangerous activities.

Google also released a toolkit for helping end-users further improve safety:

“We’re also releasing a new Responsible Generative AI Toolkit together with Gemma to help developers and researchers prioritize building safe and responsible AI applications. The toolkit includes:

  • Safety classification: We provide a novel methodology for building robust safety classifiers with minimal examples.
  • Debugging: A model debugging tool helps you investigate Gemma’s behavior and address potential issues.
  • Guidance: You can access best practices for model builders based on Google’s experience in developing and deploying large language models.”

Read Google’s official announcement:

Gemma: Introducing new state-of-the-art open models

Featured Image by Shutterstock/Photo For Everything

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