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How Language Model For Dialogue Applications Work



How Language Model For Dialogue Applications Work

Google creating a language model isn’t something new; in fact, Google LaMDA joins the likes of BERT and MUM as a way for machines to better understand user intent.

Google has researched language-based models for several years with the hope of training a model that could essentially hold an insightful and logical conversation on any topic.

So far, Google LaMDA appears to be the closest to reaching this milestone.

What Is Google LaMDA?

LaMDA, which stands for Language Models for Dialog Application, was created to enable software to better engage in a fluid and natural conversation.

LaMDA is based on the same transformer architecture as other language models such as BERT and GPT-3.

However, due to its training, LaMDA can understand nuanced questions and conversations covering several different topics.

With other models, because of the open-ended nature of conversations,  you could end up speaking about something completely different, despite initially focusing on a single topic.


This behavior can easily confuse most conversational models and chatbots.

During last year’s Google I/O announcement, we saw that LaMDA was built to overcome these issues.

The demonstration proved how the model could naturally carry out a conversation on a randomly given topic.

Despite the stream of loosely associated questions, the conversation remained on track, which was amazing to see.

How Does LaMDA work?

LaMDA was built on Google’s open-source neural network, Transformer, which is used for natural language understanding.

The model is trained to find patterns in sentences, correlations between the different words used in those sentences, and even predict the word that is likely to come next.

It does this by studying datasets consisting of dialogue rather than just individual words.

While a conversational AI system is similar to chatbot software, there are some key differences between the two.


For example, chatbots are trained on limited, specific datasets and can only have a limited conversation based on the data and exact questions it is trained on.

On the other hand, because LaMDA is trained on multiple different datasets, it can have open-ended conversations.

During the training process, it picks up on the nuances of open-ended dialogue and adapts.

It can answer questions on many different topics, depending on the flow of the conversation.

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Therefore, it enables conversations that are even more similar to human interaction than chatbots can often provide.

How Is LaMDA Trained?

Google explained that LaMDA has a two-stage training process, including pre-training and fine-tuning.

In total, the model is trained on 1.56 trillion words with 137 billion parameters.


For the pre-training stage, the team at Google created a dataset of 1.56T words from multiple public web documents.


This dataset is then tokenized (turned into a string of characters to make sentences) into 2.81T tokens, on which the model is initially trained.

During pre-training, the model uses general and scalable parallelization to predict the next part of the conversation based on previous tokens it has seen.


LaMDA is trained to perform generation and classification tasks during the fine-tuning phase.

Essentially, the LaMDA generator, which predicts the next part of the dialogue, generates several relevant responses based on the back-and-forth conversation.

The LaMDA classifiers will then predict safety and quality scores for each possible response.

Any response with a low safety score is filtered out before the top-scored response is selected to continue the conversation.

The scores are based on safety, sensibility, specificity, and interesting percentages.

Image from Google AI Blog, March 2022

The goal is to ensure the most relevant, high quality, and ultimately safest response is provided.

LaMDA Key Objectives And Metrics

Three main objectives for the model have been defined to guide the model’s training.


These are quality, safety, and groundedness.


This is based on three human rater dimensions:

  • Sensibleness.
  • Specificity
  • Interestingness.

The quality score is used to ensure a response makes sense in the context it is used, that it is specific to the question asked, and is considered insightful enough to create better dialogue.


To ensure safety, the model follows the standards of responsible AI. A set of safety objectives are used to capture and review the model’s behavior.

This ensures the output does not provide any unintended response and avoids any bias.


Groundedness is defined as “the percentage of responses containing claims about the external world.”

This is used to ensure that responses are as “factually accurate as possible, allowing users to judge the validity of a response based on the reliability of its source.”

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Through an ongoing process of quantifying progress, responses from the pre-trained model, fine-tuned model and human raters, are reviewed to evaluate the responses against the aforementioned quality, safety, and groundedness metrics.

So far, they have been able to conclude that:

  • Quality metrics improve with the number of parameters.
  • Safety improves with fine-tuning.
  • Groundedness improves as the model size increases.
LaMDA progressImage from Google AI Blog, March 2022

How Will LaMDA Be Used?

While still a work in progress with no finalized release date, it is predicted that LaMDA will be used in the future to improve customer experience and enable chatbots to provide a more human-like conversation.

In addition, using LaMDA to navigate search within Google’s search engine is a genuine possibility.

LaMDA Implications For SEO

By focusing on language and conversational models, Google offers insight into their vision for the future of search and highlights a shift in how their products are set to develop.

This ultimately means there may well be a shift in search behavior and the way users search for products or information.

Google is constantly working on improving the understanding of users’ search intent to ensure they receive the most useful and relevant results in SERPs.

The LaMDA model will, no doubt, be a key tool to understand questions searchers may be asking.

This all further highlights the need to ensure content is optimized for humans rather than search engines.

Making sure content is conversational and written with your target audience in mind means that even as Google advances, content can continue to perform well.

It’s also key to regularly refresh evergreen content to ensure it evolves with time and remains relevant.


In a paper titled Rethinking Search: Making Experts out of Dilettantes, research engineers from Google shared how they envisage AI advancements such as LaMDA will further enhance “search as a conversation with experts.”

They shared an example around the search question, “What are the health benefits and risks of red wine?”

Currently, Google will display an answer box list of bullet points as answers to this question.

However, they suggest that in the future, a response may well be a paragraph explaining the benefits and risks of red wine, with links to the source information.

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Therefore, ensuring content is backed up by expert sources will be more important than ever should Google LaMDA generate search results in the future.

Overcoming Challenges

As with any AI model, there are challenges to address.

The two main challenges engineers face with Google LaMDA are safety and groundedness.

Safety – Avoiding Bias

Because you can pull answers from anywhere on the web, there is the possibility that the output will amplify bias, reflecting the notions that are shared online.


It is important that responsibility comes first with Google LaMDA to ensure it is not generating unpredictable or harmful results.

To help overcome this, Google has open-sourced the resources used to analyze and train the data.

This enables diverse groups to participate in creating the datasets used to train the model, help identify existing bias, and minimize any harmful or misleading information from being shared.

Factual Grounding

It isn’t easy to validate the reliability of answers that AI models produce, as sources are collected from all over the web.

To overcome this challenge, the team enables the model to consult with multiple external sources, including information retrieval systems and even a calculator, to provide accurate results.

The Groundedness metric shared earlier also ensures responses are grounded in known sources. These sources are shared to allow users to validate the results given and prevent the spreading of misinformation.

What’s Next For Google LaMDA?

Google is clear that there are benefits and risks to open-ended dialog models such as LaMDA and are committed to improving safety and groundedness to ensure a more reliable and unbiased experience.

Training LaMDA models on different data, including images or videos, is another thing we may see in the future.


This opens up the ability to navigate even more on the web, using conversational prompts.

Google’s CEO Sundar Pichai said of LaMDA, “We believe LaMDA’s conversation capabilities have the potential to make information and computing radically more accessible and easier to use.”

While a rollout date hasn’t yet been confirmed, it’s no doubt models such as LaMDA will be the future of Google.

More resources: 

Featured Image: Andrey Suslov/Shutterstock

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A Simple (But Complete) Guide



A Simple (But Complete) Guide

Making money via blogging is real. Whether you’ve just started a blog or have been running one for a while, implementing tried and tested tips can greatly help you increase your blogging income. And that’s what you came here for.

But before that, here’s my story.

I started blogging in 2012 (when “Blogspot” was a thing). Over the years, I’ve started and run multiple blogs. While a few have been successful, a lot of them failed. 

However, blogging has changed my life completely. It has helped me generate side income, get freelance writing opportunities like this one from Ahrefs, job offers, and more.

And I’m super excited to share everything with you in this guide, which I’ve divided into two parts.

Let’s dive into the first.


Four steps to start driving traffic that you can monetize

Many people who start blogging believe they need huge amounts of traffic to earn a decent income. However, that’s not true. 

High traffic doesn’t necessarily translate to higher income. 

No matter what niche you’re in, focusing on driving traffic that you can monetize is critical. You can do this in four steps.

Step 1. Choose a profitable niche 

Today, people blog about everything, including knitting. But not all niches are profitable.

For example, niches like making money online, finance, and health are more profitable than gardening and outdoor sports. 

However, it’s also a fact that the most profitable niches are often the most competitive, and choosing them may lower the chances of your success. 

Hence, the first step before starting a blog is to check if the niche is profitable and how competitive it is.


Look for affiliate programs 

One quick way to determine if a niche is profitable is by checking the number of affiliate programs in it. You can do this via a quick search on Google. Try searching for niche + affiliate programs, e.g., “knitting affiliate programs.” 

Google SERP for "knitting affiliate programs"

You can also check the top blogs in the niche and see if they’re:

  • Selling any digital products.
  • Promoting any product as an affiliate.
  • Providing consultancy services.

And more.

Page about knitting materials reader needs to follow tutorials

Check the competition 

Choosing a less competitive niche has multiple advantages. For example, it can help you attract organic traffic faster. Here’s how to do it.

1. Look up the topics you want to write about on Ahrefs’ Content Explorer.

Ahrefs' Content Explorer search results for term "knitting"

2. Switch to the “Websites” tab to see the top 100 websites that cover the topic.

List of top 100 websites in Ahrefs' Content Explorer

3. Click through to the Organic Keywords report (in Ahrefs’ Site Explorer) from the caret next to the domain name in Content Explorer.

4. Check the Keyword Difficulty (KD) score, Cost Per Click (CPC), and traffic for each of the top 50–100 non-branded keywords. 

Organic Keywords report results in Ahrefs' Site Explorer

If you’re still confused about which niche to pick, we recently covered the six best niches for affiliate marketing that are both profitable and uncompetitive.

Write what you’re passionate about 

More than the profitability and competition of the niche, your passion for the niche plays a huge role in the success of your blog. 

When you’re passionate about something, you can write effortlessly for a long period of time without worrying about traffic and revenue. It also gives you a competitive edge, as the published articles will be unique and impactful (because they will contain your personal experience). 

To summarize, you should choose a niche that:

  • Is profitable.
  • Has low or medium competition.
  • Is something you’re passionate about (most important!).


Step 2. Develop the right mindset 

Developing great content takes a lot of time. So even if you’ve chosen the perfect niche, it will take a long time for you to build an audience that you can monetize to generate blogging income. 

Hence, compared to something, e.g., freelance writing, where you earn money after every article you write, a blog requires a lot of consistent hard work and time.

This is why having the right mindset is critical. Here’s my advice to anyone looking to start a blog:

  • Start a blog for the long haul, as it can take multiple years to see any significant results
  • Block a time (e.g., around 30 minutes) every day for blogging 
  • Focus on content quality and promotion rather than revenue in the early stages
  • Don’t blog full-time unless you have a predictable income coming in every month and/or have a comfortable emergency fund
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Step 3. Build credibility

Whether you’re promoting an affiliate product or an ebook, readers will be much more likely to convert when they trust you. 

Building credibility may seem more important in a few niches (e.g., health and fitness). But if you’re serious about growing your blogging income, you should focus on credibility too.

Also, building trust among your readers takes time. However, you can get started by:

  • Creating a good About Us page. Try telling your true story (as Pat Flynn has done in the example below) and why readers should trust what you write. We’ve briefly explained how Wirecutter does it in our SEO case study.
  • Showcasing comments and shout-outs from readers. 
  • Sharing website metrics like monthly visitors, number of email subscribers, and students (if you sell a digital product).
  • Showcasing websites you’ve been featured in (also in an example below). 
Page about Pat Flynn
Publications (in grid format) that Ryan Robinson is featured on

Step 4. Focus on building an email list 

Email is not just another distribution channel. 

Email subscribers are your true fans. And whether you want to promote a blog, launch a new course, or plug an ebook, there’s no better way to launch and drive traffic than by sharing the content with your email subscribers. 

You can get started on building an email list by adding a blog subscription box in the sidebar or promoting an email newsletter. A few other popular ways of building an email list are by:

  • Providing checklists as content upgrades (see example below).
  • Launching an email course.
Page to download free basic budget template

Six ways to make money blogging


Before getting into the different monetization ways, here are some things you should keep in mind before leveraging them:

  • While diversifying your blogging income is important, you don’t need to capitalize on all the different ways.
  • Try focusing on one monetization method at a time. 
  • Never scrape off a monetization method until you’ve given it enough time. 

That being said, here are the six main ways to make money blogging:

  1. Advertising
  2. Affiliate marketing
  3. Sponsorships
  4. Selling digital products
  5. Paid communities
  6. Consulting and freelance writing

Let’s look into each of these in more detail.

1. Advertising

Let’s start with the most popular monetization method: advertising. Most bloggers start their journey by leveraging ad networks—the most popular being Google AdSense—to generate income. 

How do bloggers make money through advertising? 

Most advertising platforms pay a fee for every thousand impressions, also known as CPM (cost per mille). This depends on various factors like the user’s location, type of ad, and the advertiser. 

For example, impressions from geographies like the U.S. and U.K. will earn you a higher advertising income compared to impressions from Asia. 

A few popular advertisement platforms are Google AdSense,, and PropellerAds.


  • Most ad platforms give you limited control over the type of advertisements you want to show your readers. 
  • Advertisements also hurt the user experience of the reader. This can be minimized by placing the ads in the right places and reducing the number of ads per page. 
  • When compared to other monetization methods like affiliate marketing, income from advertising per visitor is the smallest. 

Featured website – Search Engine Journal

Search Engine Journal is a popular blog in the SEO niche that leverages advertisements as a monetization channel. Since the majority of its content is about marketing and SEO news, advertisements make a lot of sense for the blog. 

Example of ad on SEJ article

2. Affiliate marketing 

Affiliate marketing is the most effective monetization method bloggers can leverage to generate income. Unlike advertisements where you get a few dollars per thousand impressions, affiliate programs pay you up to 90% of the total sales generated through your referral link. 

From Amazon to GoDaddy, many companies have affiliate programs. And joining most of them is fairly simple. 

How does affiliate marketing work? 

When you join any affiliate program, you’re given a unique referral link. Any sale generated through this link is attributed to you for a certain period of time (usually one to two months). 

Companies pay a percentage of the total sales generated from your link in the form of affiliate revenue. This is usually a fixed percentage that can increase upon negotiation or when you’ve successfully reached a certain milestone. 


For example, if you run a blog about gardening, you can recommend gardening equipment by sharing Amazon affiliate links.

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Recommended reading: Affiliate Marketing for Beginners: What It Is + How to Succeed

Best practices to follow

While joining an affiliate program and promoting a certain product are fairly simple, here are a few additional best practices that you should know:

  • Before joining any affiliate program, be sure to read the guidelines to understand things such as commission, minimum payout threshold, and more.
  • You should track your affiliate links using WordPress plugins like Pretty Links or other similar tools. 
  • You should ensure all affiliate links have nofollow or sponsored attributes. This is an SEO best practice. 
  • For authentic and detailed product reviews, try to use the product yourself if possible. Most software affiliate programs are open to providing free access to the tools for a limited time. You can also survey your readers to gain insights. 

A few popular affiliate platforms are Amazon Affiliate Program, ShareASale, and ClickBank.

Featured website –

Ryan Robinson runs, a popular blog in the “make money online” niche. Affiliate marketing is one of the primary ways he earns revenue through his blog. 

Most of the sales are generated through reviews of blogging tools and web hosting companies. You can read one of his latest blog income reports to gain more insights. 

CTA asking site visitors to use Bluehost, a web hosting service

3. Sponsorships

If you’ve been blogging for a while, you may have already received inquiries for sponsorships. This may be in the form of sponsored articles, newsletter sponsorships, advertisement banners, and more. 

Sponsorships are a great way bloggers can earn money. However, finding a sponsor is difficult, especially when you’re just starting out. 

To get sponsors consistently, you need to build a strong brand and have good traffic and engagement numbers to show.

How do sponsorships work? 

Most bloggers are paid a one-time fee for publishing a sponsored article or for a newsletter placement (as shown in the example below). 


The fee is often based on the reach the blog/newsletter can provide. For newsletter sponsorships, for example, sponsors look at relevancy and metrics like active email subscribers, average open rate, and click rate. 

If you run a newsletter, you should consider monetizing it through email sponsorships. 

Example of a sponsored newsletter

Best practices to follow

  • Be sure to disclose when an article is sponsored
  • Share your honest feedback when writing a sponsored post/review because it’s not worth losing the trust of your followers

In the past few years, more companies have been leveraging sponsorships to generate brand awareness and leads. Here’s an example of Ahrefs collaborating with Harry Dry, who runs MarketingExamples.

MarketingExample's homepage: short write-up about Ahrefs and link to Ahrefs' site can be seen on page

4. Selling digital products 

Selling digital products is a great monetization method to generate blogging income, especially when you’ve built a strong brand. Alongside its scalability, you don’t need to worry about the challenges that come with selling physical products, e.g., shipping.

The best part about selling digital products is that you create them once and sell them forever (while making minor changes).

Here are some popular digital products that bloggers sell:

  1. Ebooks
  2. Online and cohort-based courses
  3. Printables


If you want to experiment with digital products, start by launching an ebook. Unlike a course, writing and then publishing an ebook are comparatively easier to do.

Harsh Agarwal, the person behind the popular blogging blog, ShoutMeLoud, launched multiple ebooks in the past. One of them is “The Handbook to Affiliate Marketing.” 

Page about ShoutMeLoud's ebook, "The Handbook to Affiliate Marketing"

The ebook was launched a few years ago. Since then, it has generated a consistent monthly income for Harsh. After publishing it, he just had to spend a few hours every year refreshing the content. 

A few popular platforms for selling ebooks are Gumroad and Payhip.

Online and cohort-based courses

Online learning has exploded, and the recent pandemic has fueled its growth further. People want to learn from their favorite creators who’ve already made it big in a particular niche. 

Most successful bloggers run online courses, and it’s also often their top three income sources. For example, Ryan promotes the course “Built to Blog” on his blog,

Page about the "Built to Blog" course

Even though courses are more impactful and valuable, the sad truth is most students don’t complete courses. 

If that’s also your experience, try cohort-based courses. Unlike prerecorded courses, these courses are online where a batch of students are taught at a time. 

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A few popular platforms for hosting and selling courses are Teachable and Podia.

Featured cohort-based course – PTYA

Ali Abdaal runs a successful cohort-based course known as Part-Time YouTuber Academy, where he teaches students how to start and grow their YouTube channels from 0K to 10K subscribers. 

CTA asking site visitors to join the waiting list for PTYA, Cohort 6

Printables and more

You can also sell printables on your blog, including cheat sheets, planners, and other templates, to generate revenue. You can also sell digital versions of such content—similar to what Marijana Kostelac does on her blog, Freelance Bold.

CTA asking site visitors to buy project planner

5. Paid communities 

As bloggers, you may already have thousands of engaged followers whom you describe as your “true fans.” 

While you may be interacting with them through comments and emails, you can take it a step further by starting a paid community. 

With platforms like Patreon, Slack, and Memberstack, you can get started within a few minutes. 

Featured community – Peak Freelance 

Elise Dopson started Peak Freelance, a community for freelance writers. Being a successful freelance writer and having contributed to websites like CoSchedule and Shopify, she decided to share her knowledge with other freelance writers—especially those just starting out. 

Starting a paid community is a great way for her to share her knowledge in exchange for a small monthly fee.

CTA encouraging site visitors to join paid community

Today, communities are more than a platform to get questions answered. You can organize monthly Ask Me Anything (AMA) sessions, host other influencers from the industry, and more. 

For example, alongside the membership, Elise grants members access to monthly town halls, private podcasts, a data library (containing statistics), and more. 

Page showing what all-access members can enjoy, e.g., book club, monthly town halls, etc

If you’re starting out, you can build a free community and plan to monetize it later. 

The secret to any thriving community is that it genuinely needs to add value. 

If you already run a paid community, you can look at scaling it by hiring a dedicated resource who assists you with onboarding, organizing events, flagging spam content, and more. 

Best practices for starting a paid community 

Before you build your paid community, here are a few things to keep in mind. It’s important to: 

  • Create a community guideline and ensure it’s shared with all members. On Slack, you can create workflows that trigger a warning message when certain keywords are detected. 
  • Accept members who can truly benefit from the community. 
  • Onboard new members, but don’t forget to also take feedback from existing members and implement the changes.

6. Consulting and freelance writing

If you’ve been blogging for a while, you may have already received emails from companies seeking your services—be it for consultancy or freelance writing.

In many ways, a blog is a reflection of you and your skills. It is by far the most powerful way to showcase your skills and knowledge. 

I still remember getting inquiries for freelance writing services just after publishing the first few articles on my blog. 

Key steps to follow 

Here are a few steps you can follow to get started:

First, create a dedicated page sharing details about your services. Highlight it by adding a section on the homepage and the menu bar. 

CTA asking site visitors to book a free chat to discuss Peak's marketing and SEO services

Second, you can increase credibility by adding testimonials and logos of your previous clients and work samples.

Lastly, to filter your leads and get the right ones, make sure to ask different questions such as industry, budget, exact requirements, goals, and more. I love to use Typeform to capture such details, but there are many alternatives out there that are equally good. 

To ensure you generate quality leads, provide all the important details of your service, including the process you follow. You can also answer frequently asked questions. 

Section outlining Peak's process

If you have the bandwidth, offering consultancy or freelance writing services can be a great way to diversify and grow your blogging income. 

Final thoughts

Blogging is much more than just a way to earn passive income. It greatly impacts your personal and professional life in different ways. 

I’m a living example. My blog has helped me to contribute to websites like Ahrefs’ blog, which was a far-fetched dream a few years ago. 

While often overlooked, writing blogs can open new avenues for opportunities, help you learn new skills, improve your craft, get you speaker opportunities, and more. 

Got questions? Ping me on Twitter.

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