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Social Media Freedom Of Speech: What Are The Limits?

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Social Media Freedom Of Speech: What Are The Limits?

Traditional media has often been characterized by its inaccessible barriers to entry.

The costs associated with distributing content in major publications were, and still are, a prominent deterrent for parties looking to expose their messaging to a greater audience.

It was the industrialization of print media that afforded an opportunity to reach the masses at an unprecedented scale.

Though, it was the same innovative machinery that enabled companies to widely disseminate their publications, further restricting working-class demographics from propagating their views.

The Limitation Of Traditional Channels

In Power Without Responsibility, Curran and Seaton examine the history of British media. They found that fringe publications catering to a proletariat audience saw a steep decline in the mid-19th century, which persisted for many decades.

This can be attributed to the exorbitant financial capital required to leverage traditional media, which is reflected through historic trends about the value of newspaper enterprises.

In 1851, a New York City-based publication titled St. Louis Democrat was sold for $456,000; in 1920, similar localized publications were valued at $6 to $18 million.

As a result of this trend, the media of the last two centuries was largely influenced by a select few groups which had the sole means to exploit it.

This concentrated ownership of media channels saw a lack of diversity which was so critical that it could be likened to absolutism.

Throughout the 20th century, many nations found it necessary to enforce legislation that aimed to control the ownership of mass media. For example, Australia introduced the Broadcasting Services Act 1992.

This did little to alleviate the issue, for as of 2011, 11 out of 12 major newspapers in Australia were owned by two publications.

It seemed as though that even nations which are governed by liberal democratic administrations were impervious to the limitations that major publications imposed on their freedom of speech.

This was until the conception of social media.

The Rise Of Social Media

It’s no secret that digital channels are growing exponentially more popular by the day while traditional media is on the decline.

This can be corroborated by statistics indicating that users now spend nearly double the amount of time engaging with digital channels compared to traditional media.

It is further exemplified by the fact that newspaper publications have had their revenue drop by over 50% in the last two decades.

A Search Engine Journal article written by Shelley Walsh, titled What Is Social Media? states that:

“As of 2021, 84% of the U.S. population uses at least one social media network. China alone has 1 billion social media users, and 4.65 billion people use social media worldwide. That’s 58.7% (more than half) of the global population.”

It’s safe to say that social media is now well and truly a part of our everyday lives. This is illustrated through younger generations.

A study that polled over 2,000 British parents revealed that 14% of children had expressed interest in pursuing a career as an influencer or a Youtuber.

What Makes Social Media So Popular?

What has made social media so alluring in the zeitgeist?

Besides the fact that these platforms have been intentionally designed to be addictive, they also offer users the chance to connect with their peers.

A study shows that 47.1% of its participants claim that they use social media primarily to maintain contact with friends and family.

However, in the context of free speech, the popularity of these platforms could be attributed to separate reasons.

In its infancy, social media made it possible for anybody with an internet connection and a sufficient digital device to say just about anything they wanted online.

After decades of being limited to consuming banal content churned out by corporations, many valued these platforms for providing a breath of fresh air.

Subversive material, which was unlike any of the content being aired on traditional channels, proved to be an immediate hit and quickly accrued staggering viewership. Content of this nature was soon dubbed as “viral.”

The advent of this sensation demonstrated that it was no longer essential to have significant production value to create content nor a marketing budget to publish it.

Virality seems to have shifted away from single videos and rather to a certain type of video, which is then replicated by other users, perpetuating its popularity.

It’s only every couple of days that I am becoming aware of an emerging TikTok trend.

This wouldn’t necessarily be an issue if it weren’t for many of them involving harmful challenges, some of which proved fatal and resulted in the passing of several individuals.

As previously mentioned, many children engage with these platforms and are exposed to this dangerous content.

This is just one of the reasons why discussions involving the regulation of social media are continuing to become more prevalent.

Though censorship of such frivolous content may seem insignificant, it can have considerable real-world implications.

How Does Social Media Limit Our Freedom Of Speech?

It isn’t uncommon for brands to moderate content on their websites.

In fact, every major social media platform has Terms of Services in place, which outline what is and isn’t acceptable to post on their platforms. These rules are set in place to protect their users and reduce their risk of liability.

Content that is generally prohibited on most social media platforms are posts that include gore, child exploitation, hate speech, sexually explicit images, the promotion of self-harm, leaking private information without consent (doxing), the spread of misinformation, and more.

Here are Twitter’s rules if you wish to peruse a comprehensive list of examples.

Regulated platforms are received more favorably when compared to websites that offer little moderation, such as 4chan.

What sets 4chan apart from most other social sharing platforms is that they encourage users to post anonymously.

The platform also allows users to post content that would otherwise be deemed too extreme for most other major social media sites.

As a result, 4chan is regularly lambasted in the media and has accrued an infamous reputation.

The immense popularity of mainstream social platforms, and societal contempt for websites tailored towards radical communities, indicate that internet users are generally tolerant towards some limitation to their freedom of speech – so long as the content which is being censored is intrinsically harmful.

When Is It A Problem?

It’s easy to value our safety and well-being above unimpeded freedom of speech when the content we are censoring provides no value and serves only to offend.

But where do we draw the line? A large controversy that thrust this question into the limelight was the impact of social media on the 2016 United States presidential election.

The resulting discussions implied that social media platforms appeared doomed to pose a similar threat that concentrated traditional media ownership inflicts on democracy.

Meta, which owns Facebook, Instagram, and WhatsApp, is the eighth-largest lobbying organization in the United States, having spent over $15 million in total lobbying.

A majority of Meta’s contributions were received by the Democratic Party.

Twitter’s political donations follow a similar trend. Because of this, some were alarmed when Twitter allegedly began to shadow-ban prominent figures who opposed their preferred political party.

Shadow banning is when a social media platform or website blocks content or accounts from appearing to other users without the shadow-banned user’s knowledge.

Essentially, the content will remain visible to the original poster, but it will be hidden from others in the community.

This makes it difficult for those affected to gain followers, engage with others, or grow their audience.

Regardless of your personal political leanings, it is worrying that companies have the autonomy to silence you online completely.

Though Twitter was quick to remedy this issue, once it was brought to the public’s attention, it was already too late.

Concerns developed over the influence social media companies could have on significant events, impacting the lives of millions.

The Spread Of Misinformation

Another abstraction that was incessantly discussed during this time was the prevalence of fake news. The Cambridge Dictionary defines fake news as:

“False stories that appear to be news, spread on the internet or using other media, usually created to influence political views or as a joke.”

Traditional channels are regularly criticized for evident media bias and their penchant for skewing information to suit their agenda.

Though an argument can be made that social media platforms have even more disastrous consequences as they enable users to publish completely fabricated articles and disguise them as genuine news.

This online trend has resulted in fewer people trusting the credibility of the news.

See the following SEJ article on How To Identify Fake News From Real News Online.

The advent of fake news sparked a debate over whether or not social media companies or users were responsible for damages caused by the spread of misinformation.

Naturally, social media companies have tried to distance themselves from potential liability.

The CEO of Meta, Mark Zuckerberg, famously said in an interview, “I just believe strongly that Facebook shouldn’t be the arbiter of truth of everything that people say online.”

What Can We Do About It?

With social media platforms being as prominent as they are, it would be ignorant to suggest that users who are concerned about these issues should simply abstain from using them.

This is especially true when social media sites significantly impact the livelihoods of content creators, ecommerce business owners, journalists, and a number of other professionals who leverage these platforms for monetary gain.

So, what can be done to alleviate the threat that these platforms pose to our freedom of speech?

Governments around the world have proposed new legislation to tackle this issue, but many are failing to come to fruition.

In 2015, Australia formed the eSafety Commissioner, which claims to be the first government-backed agency aiming to improve online safety.

The eSafety Commissioner has been granted legislative function under the Online Safety Act 2021.

Though the pessimists among you may notice that some of the language used in this Act serves to further restrict freedom of speech – albeit for altruistic purposes. The eSafety Commissioner claims that this Act enables them to:

“Direct internet service providers to block access to certain material which could go viral and cause significant harm to the Australian community.”

“Gives eSafety new powers to gather information about people who use a social media service, relevant electronic service or designated internet service.”

Ultimately, unless you intend to commit a crime or post content that is generally regarded as harmful to your peers, it’s unlikely that you will be silenced on social media platforms.

Regardless, it is concerning that we currently do not have the infrastructure in place to protect our freedom of speech.

If worst comes to worst, several alternative social media platforms, such as BitChute or Mastodon, are starting to gain traction.

Though, please be warned that some of these platforms are known as stomping grounds for radical figures who have previously been banned from major platforms.

Knowledge is power.

With the understanding that social media platforms and traditional channels have the means to control the discussion effectively, you’ll be able to identify if/when a company is trying to manipulate you with its agenda.

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How To Uncover Traffic Declines In Google Search Console And How To Fix Them

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How To Uncover Traffic Declines In Google Search Console And How To Fix Them

Google Search Console is an essential tool that offers critical insights into your website’s performance in Google search results.

Occasionally, you might observe a sudden decline in organic traffic, and it’s crucial to understand the potential causes behind this drop. The data stored within Google Search Console (GSC) can be vital in troubleshooting and understanding what has happened to your website.

Before troubleshooting GSC traffic declines, it’s important to understand first what Google says about assessing traffic graphs in GSC and how it reports on different metrics.

Understanding Google Search Console Metrics

Google’s documentation on debugging Search traffic drops is relatively comprehensive (compared to the guidance given in other areas) and can, for the most part, help prevent any immediate or unnecessary panic should there be a change in data.

Despite this, I often find that Search Console data is misunderstood by both clients and those in the first few years of SEO and learning the craft.

Image from Google Search Central, May 2024

Even with these definitions, if your clicks and impressions graphs begin to resemble any of the above graph examples, there can be wider meanings.

Search Central description  It could also be a sign that…
Large drop from an algorithmic update, site-wide security, or spam issue This could also signal a serious technical issue, such as accidentally deploying a noindex onto a URL or returning the incorrect status code – I’ve seen it before where the URL renders content but returns a 410.
Seasonality You will know your seasonality better than anyone, but if this graph looks inverse it could be a sign that during peak search times, Google is rotating the search engine results pages (SERPs) and choosing not to rank your site highly. This could be because, during peak search periods, there is a slight intent shift in the queries’ dominant interpretation.
Technical issues across your site, changing interests This type of graph could also represent seasonality (both as a gradual decline or increase).
Reporting glitch ¯_(ツ)_/¯ This graph can represent intermittent technical issues as well as reporting glitches. Similar to the alternate reasons for graphs like Seasonality, it could represent a short-term shift in the SERPs and what meets the needs of an adjusted dominant interpretation of a query.

Clicks & Impressions

Google filters Click and Impression data in Google Search Console through a combination of technical methods and policies designed to ensure the accuracy, reliability, and integrity of the reported data.

Reasons for this include:

  • Spam and bot filtering.
  • Duplicate data removal.
  • User privacy/protection.
  • Removing “invalid activities.”
  • Data aggregation and sampling.

One of the main reasons I’ve seen GSC change the numbers showing the UI and API is down to the setting of thresholds.

Google may set thresholds for including data in reports to prevent skewed metrics due to very low-frequency queries or impressions. For example, data for queries that result in very few impressions might be excluded from reports to maintain the statistical reliability of the metrics.

Average Position

Google Search Console produces the Average Position metric by calculating the average ranking of a website’s URLs for a specific query or set of queries over a defined period of time.

Each time a URL appears in the search results for a query, its position is recorded. For instance, if a URL appears in the 3rd position for one query and in the 7th position for another query, these positions are logged separately.

As we enter the era of AI Overviews, John Mueller has confirmed via Slack conversations that appearing in a generative snapshot will affect the average position of the query and/or URL in the Search Console UI.

1718702762 996 How To Uncover Traffic Declines In Google Search Console AndSource: John Mueller via The SEO Community Slack channel

I don’t rely on the average position metric in GSC for rank tracking, but it can be useful in trying to debug whether or not Google is having issues establishing a single dominant page for specific queries.

Understanding how the tool compiles data allows you to better diagnose the reasons as to why, and correlate data with other events such as Google updates or development deployments.

Google Updates

A Google broad core algorithm update is a significant change to Google’s search algorithm intended to improve the relevance and quality of search results.

These updates do not target specific sites or types of content but alter specific systems that make up the “core” to an extent it is noteworthy for Google to announce that an update is happening.

Google makes updates to the various individual systems all the time, so the lack of a Google announcement does not disqualify a Google update from being the cause of a change in traffic.

For example, the website in the below screenshot saw a decline from the March 2023 core update but then recovered in the November 2023 core update.

GSC: the website saw a decline from the March 2023 core updateScreenshot by author from Google Search Console, May 2024

The following screenshot shows another example of a traffic decline correlating with a Google update, and it also shows that recovery doesn’t always occur with future updates.

traffic decline correlating with a Google updateScreenshot by author from Google Search Console, May 2024

This site is predominantly informational content supporting a handful of marketing landing pages (a traditional SaaS model) and has seen a steady decline correlating with the September 2023 helpful content update.

How To Fix This

Websites negatively impacted by a broad core update can’t fix specific issues to recover.

Webmasters should focus on providing the best possible content and improving overall site quality.

Recovery, however, may occur when the next broad core update is rolled out if the site has improved in quality and relevance or Google adjusts specific systems and signal weightings back in the favour of your site.

In SEO terminology, we also refer to these traffic changes as an algorithmic penalty, which can take time to recover from.

SERP Layout Updates

Given the launch of AI Overviews, I feel many SEO professionals will conduct this type of analysis in the coming months.

In addition to AI Overviews, Google can choose to include a number of different SERP features ranging from:

  • Shopping results.
  • Map Packs.
  • X (Twitter) carousels.
  • People Also Ask accordions.
  • Featured snippets.
  • Video thumbnails.

All of these not only detract and distract users from the traditional organic results, but they also cause pixel shifts.

From our testing of SGE/AI Overviews, we see traditional results being pushed down anywhere between 1,000 and 1,500 pixels.

When this happens you’re not likely to see third-party rank tracking tools show a decrease, but you will see clicks decline in GSC.

The impact of SERP features on your traffic depends on two things:

  • The type of feature introduced.
  • Whether your users predominantly use mobile or desktop.

Generally, SERP features are more impactful to mobile traffic as they greatly increase scroll depth, and the user screen is much smaller.

You can establish your dominant traffic source by looking at the device breakdown in Google Search Console:

Device by users: clicks and impressionsImage from author’s website, May 2024

You can then compare the two graphs in the UI, or by exporting data via the API with it broken down by devices.

How To Fix This

When Google introduces new SERP features, you can adjust your content and site to become “more eligible” for them.

Some are driven by structured data, and others are determined by Google systems after processing your content.

If Google has introduced a feature that results in more zero-click searches for a particular query, you need to first quantify the traffic loss and then adjust your strategy to become more visible for similar and associated queries that still feature in your target audience’s overall search journey.

Seasonality Traffic Changes

Seasonality in demand refers to predictable fluctuations in consumer interest and purchasing behavior that occur at specific times of the year, influenced by factors such as holidays, weather changes, and cultural events.

Notably, a lot of ecommerce businesses will see peaks in the run-up to Christmas and Thanksgiving, whilst travel companies will see seasonality peaks at different times of the year depending on the destinations and vacation types they cater to.

The below screenshot is atypical of a business that has a seasonal peak in the run-up to Christmas.

seasonal peaks as measured in GSCScreenshot by author from Google Search Console, May 2024

You will see these trends in the Performance Report section and likely see users and sessions mirrored in other analytics platforms.

During a seasonal peak, Google may choose to alter the SERPs in terms of which websites are ranked and which SERP features appear. This occurs when the increase in search demand also brings with it a change in user intent, thus changing the dominant interpretation of the query.

In the travel sector, the shift is often from a research objective to a commercial objective. Out-of-season searchers are predominantly researching destinations or looking for deals, and when it is time to book, they’re using the same search queries but looking to book.

As a result, webpages with a value proposition that caters more to the informational intent are either “demoted” in rankings or swapped out in favor of webpages that (in Google’s eyes) better cater to users in satisfying the commercial intent.

How To Fix This

There is no direct fix for traffic increases and decreases caused by seasonality.

However, you can adjust your overall SEO strategy to accommodate this and work to create visibility for the website outside of peak times by creating content to meet the needs and intent of users who may have a more research and information-gathering intent.

Penalties & Manual Actions

A Google penalty is a punitive action taken against a website by Google, reducing its search rankings or removing it from search results, typically due to violations of Google’s guidelines.

As well as receiving a notification in GSC, you’ll typically see a sharp decrease in traffic, akin to the graph below:

Google traffic decline from penaltyScreenshot by author from Google Search Console, May 2024

Whether or not the penalty is partial or sitewide will depend on how bad the traffic decline is, and also the type (or reason) as to why you received a penalty in the first place will determine what efforts are required and how long it will take to recover.

Changes In PPC Strategies

A common issue I encounter working with organizations is a disconnect in understanding that, sometimes, altering a PPC campaign can affect organic traffic.

An example of this is brand. If you start running a paid search campaign on your brand, you can often expect to see a decrease in branded clicks and CTR. As most organizations have separate vendors for this, it isn’t often communicated that this will be the case.

The Search results performance report in GSC can help you identify whether or not you have cannibalization between your SEO and PPC. From this report, you can correlate branded and non-branded traffic drops with the changelog from those in command of the PPC campaign.

How To Fix This

Ensuring that all stakeholders understand why there have been changes to organic traffic, and that the traffic (and user) isn’t lost, it is now being attributed to Paid.

Understanding if this is the “right decision” or not requires a conversation with those managing the PPC campaigns, and if they are performing and providing a strong ROAS, then the organic traffic loss needs to be acknowledged and accepted.

Recovering Site Traffic

Recovering from Google updates can take time.

Recently, John Mueller has said that sometimes, to recover, you need to wait for another update cycle.

However, this doesn’t mean you shouldn’t be active in trying to improve your website and better align with what Google wants to reward and relying on Google reversing previous signal weighting changes.

It’s critical that you start doing all the right things as soon as possible. The earlier that you identify and begin to solve problems, the earlier that you open up the potential for recovery. The time it takes to recover depends on what caused the drop in the first place, and there might be multiple factors to account for. Building a better website for your audience that provides them with better experiences and better service is always the right thing to do.

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Barriers To Audience Buy-In

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Barriers to audience buy-in with lead generation

This is an excerpt from the B2B Lead Generation ebook, which draws on SEJ’s internal expertise in delivering leads across multiple media types.

People are driven by a mix of desires, wants, needs, experiences, and external pressures.

It can take time to get it right and convince a person to become a lead, let alone a paying customer.

Here are some nuances of logic and psychology that could be impacting your ability to connect with audiences and build strong leads.

1. Poor Negotiations & The Endowment Effect

Every potential customer you encounter values their own effort and information. And due to something called the endowment effect, they value that time and data much more than you do.

In contrast, the same psychological effect means you value what you offer in exchange for peoples’ information more than they will.

If the value of what you’re offering fails to match the value of what consumers are giving you in exchange (read: their time and information), the conversions will be weak.

The solution? You can increase the perceived value of the thing you’re offering, or reduce the value of what the user “pays” for the thing you offer.

Want an exclusive peek into tactics we use when developing our own lead gen campaigns? Check out our upcoming webinar.

Humans evaluate rewards in multiple dimensions, including the reward amount, the time until the reward is received, and the certainty of the reward.

The more time before a reward occurs, and the less certain its ultimate value, the harder you have to work to get someone to engage.

Offering value upfront – even if you’re presenting something else soon after, like a live event, ebook, or demo – can help entice immediate action as well as convince leads of the long-term value of their investment.

It can even act as a prime for the next step in the lead gen nurturing process, hinting at even more value to come and increasing the effectiveness of the rest of your lead generation strategy.

It’s another reason why inbound content is a critical support for lead generation content. The short-term rewards of highly useful ungated content help prepare audiences for longer-term benefits offered down the line.

3. Abandonment & The Funnel Myth

Every lead generation journey is carefully planned, but if you designed it with a funnel in mind, you could be losing many qualified leads.

That’s because the imagery of a funnel might suggest that all leads engage with your brand or offer in the same way, but this simply isn’t true – particularly for products or services with high values.

Instead, these journeys are more abstract. Leads tend to move back and forth between stages depending on their circumstances. They might change their minds, encounter organizational roadblocks, switch channels, or their needs might suddenly change.

Instead of limiting journeys to audience segments, consider optimizing for paths and situations, too.

Optimizing for specific situations and encounters creates multiple opportunities to capture a lead while they’re in certain mindsets. Every opportunity is a way to engage with varying “costs” for time and data, and align your key performance indicators (KPIs) to match.

Situational journeys also create unique opportunities to learn about the various audience segments, including what they’re most interested in, which offers to grab their attention, and which aspects of your brand, product, or service they’re most concerned about.

4. Under-Pricing

Free trials and discounts can be eye-catching, but they don’t always work to your benefit.

Brands often think consumers will always choose the product with the lowest possible price. That isn’t always the case.

Consumers work within something referred to as the “zone of acceptability,” which is the price range they feel is acceptable for a purchasing decision.

If your brand falls outside that range, you’ll likely get the leads – but they could fail to buy in later. The initial offer might be attractive, but the lower perception of value could work against you when it comes time to try and close the sale.

Several elements play into whether consumers are sensitive to pricing discounts. The overall cost of a purchase matters, for example.

Higher-priced purchases, such as SaaS or real estate, can be extremely sensitive to pricing discounts. They can lead to your audience perceiving the product as lower-value, or make it seem like you’re struggling. A price-quality relationship is easy to see in many places in our lives. If you select the absolute lowest price for an airline ticket, do you expect your journey to be timely and comfortable?

It’s difficult to offer specific advice on these points. To find ideal price points and discounts, you need good feedback systems from both customers and leads – and you need data about how other audiences interact. But there’s value in not being the cheapest option.

Get more tips on how we, here at SEJ, create holistic content campaigns to drive leads in this exclusive webinar.

5. Lead Roles & Information

In every large purchasing decision, there are multiple roles in the process. These include:

  • User: The person who ultimately uses the product or service.
  • Buyer: The person who makes the purchase, but may or may not know anything about the actual product or service being purchased.
  • Decider: The person who determines whether to make the purchase.
  • Influencer: The person who provides opinions and thoughts on the product or service, and influences perceptions of it.
  • Gatekeeper: The person who gathers and holds information about the product or service.

Sometimes, different people play these roles, and other times, one person may hold more than one of these roles. However, the needs of each role must be met at the right time. If you fail to meet their needs, you’ll see your conversions turn cold at a higher rate early in the process.

The only way to avoid this complication is to understand who it is you’re attracting when you capture the lead, and make the right information available at the right time during the conversion process.

6. Understand Why People Don’t Sign Up

Many businesses put significant effort into lead nurturing and understanding the qualities of potential customers who fill out lead forms.

But what about the ones who don’t fill out those forms?

Understanding these values and the traits that drive purchasing decisions is paramount.

Your own proprietary and customer data, like your analytics, client data, and lead interactions, makes an excellent starting place, but don’t make the mistake of basing your decisions solely on the data you have collected about the leads you have.

This information creates a picture based solely on people already interacting with you. It doesn’t include information about the audience you’ve failed to capture so far.

Don’t fall for survivorship bias, which occurs when you only look at data from people who have passed your selection filters.

This is especially critical for lead generation because there are groups of people you don’t want to become leads. But you need to make sure you’re attracting as many ideal leads as possible while filtering out those that are suboptimal. You need information about the people who aren’t converting to ensure your filters are working as intended.

Gather information from the segment of your target audience that uses a competitor’s products, and pair them with psychographic tools and frameworks like “values and lifestyle surveys” (VALS) to gather insights and inform decisions.

In a digital world of tough competition and even more demands on every dollar, your lead generation needs to be precise.

Understanding what drives your target audience before you capture the lead and ensuring every detail is crafted with the final conversion in mind will help you capture more leads and sales, and leave your brand the clear market winner.

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Google Answers Question About Toxic Link Sabotage

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Gary Illyes answers a question about how to notify Google about toxic link sabotage

Google’s Gary Illyes answered a question about how to notify Google that someone is poisoning their backlink profile with “toxic links” which is a problem that many people have been talking about for at least fifteen years.

Question About Alerting Google To Toxic Links

Gary narrated the question:

“Someone’s asking, how to alert Google of sabotage via toxic links?”

And this is Gary’s answer:

I know what I would do: I’d ignore those links.

Generally Google is really, REALLY good at ignoring links that are irrelevant to the site they’re pointing at. If you feel like it, you can always disavow those “toxic” links, or file a spam report.

Disavow Links If You Feel Like It

Gary linked to Google’s explainer about disavowing links where it’s explained that the disavow tool is for a site owner to tell Google about links that they are responsible for in some way, like paid links or some other link scheme.

This is what it advises:

“If you have a manual action against your site for unnatural links to your site, or if you think you’re about to get such a manual action (because of paid links or other link schemes that violate our quality guidelines), you should try to remove the links from the other site to your site. If you can’t remove those links yourself, or get them removed, then you should disavow the URLs of the questionable pages or domains that link to your website.”

Google suggests that a link disavow is only necessary when two conditions are met:

  1. “You have a considerable number of spammy, artificial, or low-quality links pointing to your site,
    AND
  2. The links have caused a manual action, or likely will cause a manual action, on your site.”

Both of the above conditions must be met in order to file a valid link disavow tool.

Origin Of The Phrase Toxic Links

As Google became better at penalizing sites for low quality links and paid links, some in the highly competitive gambling industry started creating low quality links to sabotage their competitors. The practice was called negative SEO.

The phrase toxic link is something that was never heard of until after the Penguin link updates in 2012 which required penalized sites to remove all the paid and low quality links they created and then disavow the rest. An industry grew around disavowing links and it was that industry that invented the phrase Toxic Links for use in their marketing.

Confirmation That Google Is Able To Ignore Links

I have shared this anecdote before and I’ll share it here again. Someone I knew contacted me and said that their site lost rankings from negative SEO links. I took a look and their site had a ton of really nasty looking links. So out of curiosity (and because I knew that the site was this person’s main income), I emailed someone at Google Mountain View headquarters about it. That person checked it and replied that the site didn’t lose rankings because of the links. They lost rankings because of a Panda update related content issue.

That was around 2012 and it showed me how good Google was at ignoring links. Now, if Google was that good at ignoring really bad links back then, they’re probably better at it now, twelve years later now that they have the spam brain AI.

Listen to the question and answer at the 8:22 minute mark:

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