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6 Common Hreflang Tag Mistakes Sabotaging Your International SEO



6 Common Hreflang Tag Mistakes Sabotaging Your International SEO

Correct hreflang tags are critical to international SEO success if you run your business across multiple domains targeting different languages or regions.

When hreflang tags are missing, or incorrectly used, you hurt your SEO.

I first experienced this frustration many years ago when managing the SEO of a client’s eight Shopify stores.

Without the correct hreflang tags, I saw how these stores were cannibalizing each other’s SEO efforts in their respective local markets.

Since then, I’ve evaluated the hreflang tags of hundreds of ecommerce stores and have come to identify six common mistakes being made repeatedly.

And let’s be clear. This isn’t a problem unique to Shopify.

If you run multi-regional stores from any ecommerce platform, you may be making any one of these mistakes.

Without the correct directive, Google won’t know the best version is to show to a user based on their location.

Shopify does, however, present a unique issue as there is no way to link the various products, collections, pages, and articles together across multi-stores to produce accurate hreflang tags unless you are using the custom hreflang tags Shopify app.

Some stores create workarounds for their hreflang tags by using redirects to their translated versions of the URLs.

This can be difficult to manage and lead to broken redirect chains for a poor user experience.

Let’s not forget to mention the negative impact on your SEO.

Why Are Hreflang Tags Crucial For International SEO?

A hreflang tag is a bit of code to signal to search engines which version of your store to show to a user based on their language and geographical location.

When you run multiple ecommerce accounts under the same brand, you can customize URLs for the native language.

This is recommended for SEO best practice, as you can better target native language keywords in your URLs and optimize a page accordingly.

With correct hreflang tag implementation, your store will send signals to Google to index and show the appropriate version based on a user’s location and/or language.

Improvements in user experience and minimizing source code conflicts have a flow-on effect on SEO.

For example, with the correct version showing to the user, you may be more likely to attract links for your geo-targeted page. This can help reduce bounce rates and improve conversions.

What Does A Correct Hreflang Tag Look Like?

Before we jump into the common mistakes, let’s look at the benefits of getting your hrelflang tags right.

Say you own a shoe store, which we’ll call “Good Shoe Shop.”

You’re currently managing two domains; one to target U.S. customers (a .com domain), and one to target German customers (a .de domain).

It makes sense to show the .com version of the website to users based in the U.S., and the .de version of the store, which you have translated into German, to users in Germany.

In addition, you’ve translated the German store and used customized German language URLs to target keywords in the native language.

Great SEO work!

The correct hreflang tags for a ‘Shoe’ collection page would look like this for the .com store:

<link rel="alternate" href="" hreflang="x-default">
<link rel="alternate" href="" hreflang="en" />
<link rel="alternate" href="" hreflang="de" />

These hreflang tags tell Google when a customer is based in Germany, to show the .de version of your store.

The “x-default” attribute signals to Google to show this default version when a user’s location or language isn’t specified or targeted in the hreflang tag.

Without these hreflang tags, users in Germany may be served the .com version simply because it ranks better for certain English keywords.

As a result, they would be shown USD pricing, U.S. shipping information, and no custom language translations on the page.

Can you imagine the difference in the customer’s experience?

This ability to have the correct version of your store showing to a customer based on their location is why hreflang tags are important for your international SEO.

Here are the six most common hreflang tag mistakes we’ve come across causing stores to repel customers and lose sales.

1. No Custom URL Translations

If you run multiple domains, it’s important to show your store to the user in their native language and to have custom URL translations.

It’s up to you whether you make these translations manually or utilize a translation app.

What’s important here is how you manage these translations in your hreflang tags.

Here’s an example from Toby Wagons.

Even though Toby Wagons utilizes hreflang tags, they are all in English.

Screenshot from, May 2022

This may not appear to be a big deal at face value, however, how many French customers, in France, are using English search queries, like “Spare Parts” as opposed to French search queries?

What does this mean for the French store’s local SEO?

Isn’t it quite likely the .com store will outrank the French store for English keywords when you would prefer the .fr domain to rank highly in France?

By not using customized, native language URLs, you are missing out on valuable SEO juice.

This better serves your local customers while targeting more relevant keywords for that region.
As an example, Toby Wagons use “pièces de rechange” as the collection name for “Spare Part” in their French store.

SEO best practices would have you replicate this in the URL to target these keywords and provide a more consistent and geographically relevant user experience.

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="en" href="" />
<link rel="alternate" hreflang="fr" href="" />
<link rel="alternate" hreflang="en" href="" />
<link rel="alternate" hreflang="fr" href="" />

Each individual store should utilize custom URLs, translated for the local language.

These translated URLs should then be used in the hreflang tags.

2. No Cross-Referencing Between Stores

Large, multinational brands like Allbirds are not infallible.

They have several stores, catering to different geo-regions like Australia, Canada, China, Japan, etc.

Allbirds multiple regionsScreenshot from, May 2022

They don’t, however, cross-reference their other stores in the hreflang tags.

Allbirds - no cross-referencing of hreflang tagsScreenshot from, May 2022

The consequence?

These stores aren’t passing valuable SEO juice between stores.

3. Incorrectly Mapping URLs

In the case of Kids Ride Shotgun, they use hreflang tags between their eight domains.

They are, however, incorrectly mapped.

Kids Ride Shotgun - hreflang tagsScreenshot from, May 2022

When navigating to a collection page, the hreflang tag points to each store’s homepage, rather than the equivalent collection page for that store.

This is telling search engines the homepage is the most relevant version of that page for all pages.

From an SEO point of view, this is grossly wrong.

Each collection page should be mapped to the corresponding collection page in the other stores.

Likewise, each product page should have an equivalent product page to map to in the hreflang tags.

4. Incorrect Use Of Hreflang Tag Domains

It’s vitally important you use the correct version of your domain in the hreflang tags.

For example, Vovox has two domains on two separate Shopify accounts:

Their hreflang tags do not use the public versions of the domains but rather, the Shopify admin domains.

VOVOX - incorrect hreflang tagScreenshot from, May 2022

This is no doubt causing confusion and potentially impacting their SEO.

Always use the public domain address in your hreflang tags.

They also do not use customized URLs. The .com version of the store uses the .ch translations.

For example:

English URLs should be used in the English store and mapped in the hreflang tags to the other languages.

5. Hreflang Tags Point To A Redirect

Just like with any internal link on your website, SEO best practices call for using the correct version of the link rather than a 301 redirect.

While there’s nothing inherently wrong with redirects; they exist for a purpose, to communicate with search engines that a URL has moved.

If a correct or new version of the URL exists, then it’s best practice to use the correct destination link when internally linking to pages on your site.

This saves page load time and provides a clearer directive for search engines.

In this example, redirected URLs have been used in the hreflang tags.

Even though we are on the .com site, the URL used in the hreflang tag is using the German version of the collection page.

While looking at other collection pages, I found many hreflang tag URLs end up as 404 errors.

They’ve tried to work around this with 301 redirects.

This is a clumsy way to manage hreflang tags between different stores and can cause all sorts of broken links. 301s may also weaken your PageRank if used incorrectly.



Klitmøller Collection - wrong hreflang tagsScreenshot from, May 2022
Klitmoller Collective - redirect hreflang tagScreenshot from, May 2022

6. Hreflang Tags Point To 404 Pages

While this last point is not a direct hreflang mistake, it’s an SEO mistake that comes about due to hreflang limitations in Shopify or in the case of other platforms, where a non-existent link has been used.

The problem is when a store has an hreflang tag that points to another store’s equivalent page but it lands with a 404 error.

This happens because the URL is often translated into the native language but the hreflang tag uses the same English version.

Below is an example from Luvele.

When I viewed the hreflang tags on a .com collection page, the .de version of that collection took me straight to a 404 page.

Luvele - 404 hreflang tagScreenshot from, May 2022

The hreflang tags are using English URLs for both the .com and .de versions, even though they have a German version of the page

<link rel="alternate" href="" hreflang="en-au" />
<link rel="alternate" href="" hreflang="en-de" />

The correct hreflang tag should point to the German translation of the collection page.

<link rel="alternate" href="" hreflang="en-de" />

You can begin to imagine the number of 404 errors that are occurring when you multiply this across how many stores you manage, and the number of collection and product pages!

Other Considerations And SEO Best Practices For Hreflang Tags

Use Self-Referencing Hreflang Tag

Without a self-referencing hreflang tag, the attributes may be ignored or misinterpreted.

This can cause clashes with other source code.

The page in reference needs to include a self-referencing hreflang tag.

Avoid Mixing Canonical Tags And Hreflang Tags

A canonical tag signals to search engines which version of a URL (where the content is the same) to the index to avoid duplicate content.

On the other hand, a hreflang tag is a signal to search engines to show the correct version of a URL based on a user’s language or region (and where the content may slightly differ to compensate for translation differences or region/language-specific information).

This can easily be muddled when you start cross-referencing canonical tags in the hreflang tags between stores.

Canonical tags should only be used within a single version of your store.

You can avoid sending confusing signals to Google by only using the same URL being self-referenced in the hreflang tag attributes.

Use Correct Region And Language Attributes

Be mindful of using the correct country and language code attributes.

Double-check the ISO 639-1 format for language codes to ensure you are using the correct one. For targeting a specific region, you will need to use the ISO 3166-1 Alpha 2 format.

More resources:

Featured Image: por_suwat/Shutterstock

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GPT Store Set To Launch In 2024 After ‘Unexpected’ Delays




GPT Store Set To Launch In 2024 After 'Unexpected' Delays

OpenAI shares its plans for the GPT Store, enhancements to GPT Builder tools, privacy improvements, and updates coming to ChatGPT.

  • OpenAI has scheduled the launch of the GPT Store for early next year, aligning with its ongoing commitment to developing advanced AI technologies.
  • The GPT Builder tools have received substantial updates, including a more intuitive configuration interface and improved file handling capabilities.
  • Anticipation builds for upcoming updates to ChatGPT, highlighting OpenAI’s responsiveness to community feedback and dedication to AI innovation.

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96.55% of Content Gets No Traffic From Google. Here’s How to Be in the Other 3.45% [New Research for 2023]



96.55% of Content Gets No Traffic From Google. Here's How to Be in the Other 3.45% [New Research for 2023]

It’s no secret that the web is growing by millions, if not billions of pages per day.

Our Content Explorer tool discovers 10 million new pages every 24 hours while being very picky about the pages that qualify for inclusion. The “main” Ahrefs web crawler crawls that number of pages every two minutes. 

But how much of this content gets organic traffic from Google?

To find out, we took the entire database from our Content Explorer tool (around 14 billion pages) and studied how many pages get traffic from organic search and why.

How many web pages get organic search traffic?

96.55% of all pages in our index get zero traffic from Google, and 1.94% get between one and ten monthly visits.

Distribution of pages by traffic from Content Explorer

Before we move on to discussing why the vast majority of pages never get any search traffic from Google (and how to avoid being one of them), it’s important to address two discrepancies with the studied data:

  1. ~14 billion pages may seem like a huge number, but it’s not the most accurate representation of the entire web. Even compared to the size of Site Explorer’s index of 340.8 billion pages, our sample size for this study is quite small and somewhat biased towards the “quality side of the web.”
  2. Our search traffic numbers are estimates. Even though our database of ~651 million keywords in Site Explorer (where our estimates come from) is arguably the largest database of its kind, it doesn’t contain every possible thing people search for in Google. There’s a chance that some of these pages get search traffic from super long-tail keywords that are not popular enough to make it into our database.

That said, these two “inaccuracies” don’t change much in the grand scheme of things: the vast majority of published pages never rank in Google and never get any search traffic. 

But why is this, and how can you be a part of the minority that gets organic search traffic from Google?

Well, there are hundreds of SEO issues that may prevent your pages from ranking well in Google. But if we focus only on the most common scenarios, assuming the page is indexed, there are only three of them.

Reason 1: The topic has no search demand

If nobody is searching for your topic, you won’t get any search traffic—even if you rank #1.

For example, I recently Googled “pull sitemap into google sheets” and clicked the top-ranking page (which solved my problem in seconds, by the way). But if you plug that URL into Ahrefs’ Site Explorer, you’ll see that it gets zero estimated organic search traffic:

The top-ranking page for this topic gets no traffic because there's no search demandThe top-ranking page for this topic gets no traffic because there's no search demand

This is because hardly anyone else is searching for this, as data from Keywords Explorer confirms:

Keyword data from Ahrefs' Keywords Explorer confirms that this topic has no search demandKeyword data from Ahrefs' Keywords Explorer confirms that this topic has no search demand

This is why it’s so important to do keyword research. You can’t just assume that people are searching for whatever you want to talk about. You need to check the data.

Our Traffic Potential (TP) metric in Keywords Explorer can help with this. It estimates how much organic search traffic the current top-ranking page for a keyword gets from all the queries it ranks for. This is a good indicator of the total search demand for a topic.

You’ll see this metric for every keyword in Keywords Explorer, and you can even filter for keywords that meet your minimum criteria (e.g., 500+ monthly traffic potential): 

Filtering for keywords with Traffic Potential (TP) in Ahrefs' Keywords ExplorerFiltering for keywords with Traffic Potential (TP) in Ahrefs' Keywords Explorer

Reason 2: The page has no backlinks

Backlinks are one of Google’s top three ranking factors, so it probably comes as no surprise that there’s a clear correlation between the number of websites linking to a page and its traffic.

Pages with more referring domains get more trafficPages with more referring domains get more traffic
Pages with more referring domains get more traffic

Same goes for the correlation between a page’s traffic and keyword rankings:

Pages with more referring domains rank for more keywordsPages with more referring domains rank for more keywords
Pages with more referring domains rank for more keywords

Does any of this data prove that backlinks help you rank higher in Google?

No, because correlation does not imply causation. However, most SEO professionals will tell you that it’s almost impossible to rank on the first page for competitive keywords without backlinks—an observation that aligns with the data above.

The key word there is “competitive.” Plenty of pages get organic traffic while having no backlinks…

Pages with more referring domains get more trafficPages with more referring domains get more traffic
How much traffic pages with no backlinks get

… but from what I can tell, almost all of them are about low-competition topics.

For example, this lyrics page for a Neil Young song gets an estimated 162 monthly visits with no backlinks: 

Example of a page with traffic but no backlinks, via Ahrefs' Content ExplorerExample of a page with traffic but no backlinks, via Ahrefs' Content Explorer

But if we check the keywords it ranks for, they almost all have Keyword Difficulty (KD) scores in the single figures:

Some of the low-difficulty keywords a page without traffic ranks forSome of the low-difficulty keywords a page without traffic ranks for

It’s the same story for this page selling upholstered headboards:

Some of the low-difficulty keywords a page without traffic ranks forSome of the low-difficulty keywords a page without traffic ranks for

You might have noticed two other things about these pages:

  • Neither of them get that much traffic. This is pretty typical. Our index contains ~20 million pages with no referring domains, yet only 2,997 of them get more than 1K search visits per month. That’s roughly 1 in every 6,671 pages with no backlinks.
  • Both of the sites they’re on have high Domain Rating (DR) scores. This metric shows the relative strength of a website’s backlink profile. Stronger sites like these have more PageRank that they can pass to pages with internal links to help them rank. 

Bottom line? If you want your pages to get search traffic, you really only have two options:

  1. Target uncompetitive topics that you can rank for with few or no backlinks.
  2. Target competitive topics and build backlinks to rank.

If you want to find uncompetitive topics, try this:

  1. Enter a topic into Keywords Explorer
  2. Go to the Matching terms report
  3. Set the Keyword Difficulty (KD) filter to max. 20
  4. Set the Lowest DR filter to your site’s DR (this will show you keywords with at least one of the same or lower DR ranking in the top 5)
Filtering for low-competition keywords in Ahrefs' Keywords ExplorerFiltering for low-competition keywords in Ahrefs' Keywords Explorer

(Remember to keep an eye on the TP column to make sure they have traffic potential.)

To rank for more competitive topics, you’ll need to earn or build high-quality backlinks to your page. If you’re not sure how to do that, start with the guides below. Keep in mind that it’ll be practically impossible to get links unless your content adds something to the conversation. 

Reason 3. The page doesn’t match search intent

Google wants to give users the most relevant results for a query. That’s why the top organic results for “best yoga mat” are blog posts with recommendations, not product pages. 

It's obviously what searchers want when they search for "best yoga mats"It's obviously what searchers want when they search for "best yoga mats"

Basically, Google knows that searchers are in research mode, not buying mode.

It’s also why this page selling yoga mats doesn’t show up, despite it having backlinks from more than six times more websites than any of the top-ranking pages:

Page selling yoga mats that has lots of backlinksPage selling yoga mats that has lots of backlinks
Number of linking websites to the top-ranking pages for "best yoga mats"Number of linking websites to the top-ranking pages for "best yoga mats"

Luckily, the page ranks for thousands of other more relevant keywords and gets tens of thousands of monthly organic visits. So it’s not such a big deal that it doesn’t rank for “best yoga mats.”

Number of keyword rankings for the page selling yoga matsNumber of keyword rankings for the page selling yoga mats

However, if you have pages with lots of backlinks but no organic traffic—and they already target a keyword with traffic potential—another quick SEO win is to re-optimize them for search intent.

We did this in 2018 with our free backlink checker.

It was originally nothing but a boring landing page explaining the benefits of our product and offering a 7-day trial: 

Original landing page for our free backlink checkerOriginal landing page for our free backlink checker

After analyzing search intent, we soon realized the issue:

People weren’t looking for a landing page, but rather a free tool they could use right away. 

So, in September 2018, we created a free tool and published it under the same URL. It ranked #1 pretty much overnight, and has remained there ever since. 

Our rankings over time for the keyword "backlink checker." You can see when we changed the pageOur rankings over time for the keyword "backlink checker." You can see when we changed the page

Organic traffic went through the roof, too. From ~14K monthly organic visits pre-optimization to almost ~200K today. 

Estimated search traffic over time to our free backlink checkerEstimated search traffic over time to our free backlink checker


96.55% of pages get no organic traffic. 

Keep your pages in the other 3.45% by building backlinks, choosing topics with organic traffic potential, and matching search intent.

Ping me on Twitter if you have any questions. 🙂

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Firefox URL Tracking Removal – Is This A Trend To Watch?




Firefox URL Tracking Removal - Is This A Trend To Watch?

Firefox recently announced that they are offering users a choice on whether or not to include tracking information from copied URLs, which comes on the on the heels of iOS 17 blocking user tracking via URLs. The momentum of removing tracking information from URLs appears to be gaining speed. Where is this all going and should marketers be concerned?

Is it possible that blocking URL tracking parameters in the name of privacy will become a trend industrywide?

Firefox Announcement

Firefox recently announced that beginning in the Firefox Browser version 120.0, users will be able to select whether or not they want URLs that they copied to contain tracking parameters.

When users select a link to copy and click to raise the contextual menu for it, Firefox is now giving users a choice as to whether to copy the URL with or without the URL tracking parameters that might be attached to the URL.

Screenshot Of Firefox 120 Contextual Menu

Screenshot of Firefox functionality

According to the Firefox 120 announcement:

“Firefox supports a new “Copy Link Without Site Tracking” feature in the context menu which ensures that copied links no longer contain tracking information.”

Browser Trends For Privacy

All browsers, including Google’s Chrome and Chrome variants, are adding new features that make it harder for websites to track users online through referrer information embedded in a URL when a user clicks from one site and leaves through that click to visit another site.

This trend for privacy has been ongoing for many years but it became more noticeable in 2020 when Chrome made changes to how referrer information was sent when users click links to visit other sites. Firefox and Safari followed with similar referrer behavior.

Whether the current Firefox implementation would be disruptive or if the impact is overblown is kind of besides the point.

What is the point is whether or not what Firefox and Apple did to protect privacy is a trend and if that trend will extend to more blocking of URL parameters that are stronger than what Firefox recently implemented.

I asked Kenny Hyder, CEO of online marketing agency Pixel Main, what his thoughts are about the potential disruptive aspect of what Firefox is doing and whether it’s a trend.

Kenny answered:

“It’s not disruptive from Firefox alone, which only has a 3% market share. If other popular browsers follow suit it could begin to be disruptive to a limited degree, but easily solved from a marketers prospective.

If it became more intrusive and they blocked UTM tags, it would take awhile for them all to catch on if you were to circumvent UTM tags by simply tagging things in a series of sub-directories.. ie.<tag1>/<tag2> etc.

Also, most savvy marketers are already integrating future proof workarounds for these exact scenarios.

A lot can be done with pixel based integrations rather than cookie based or UTM tracking. When set up properly they can actually provide better and more accurate tracking and attribution. Hence the name of my agency, Pixel Main.”

I think most marketers are aware that privacy is the trend. The good ones have already taken steps to keep it from becoming a problem while still respecting user privacy.”

Some URL Parameters Are Already Affected

For those who are on the periphery of what’s going on with browsers and privacy, it may come as a surprise that some tracking parameters are already affected by actions meant to protect user privacy.

Jonathan Cairo, Lead Solutions Engineer at Elevar shared that there is already a limited amount of tracking related information stripped from URLs.

But he also explained that there are limits to how much information can be stripped from URLs because the resulting negative effects would cause important web browsing functionality to fail.

Jonathan explained:

“So far, we’re seeing a selective trend where some URL parameters, like ‘fbclid’ in Safari’s private browsing, are disappearing, while others, such as TikTok’s ‘ttclid’, remain.

UTM parameters are expected to stay since they focus on user segmentation rather than individual tracking, provided they are used as intended.

The idea of completely removing all URL parameters seems improbable, as it would disrupt key functionalities on numerous websites, including banking services and search capabilities.

Such a drastic move could lead users to switch to alternative browsers.

On the other hand, if only some parameters are eliminated, there’s the possibility of marketers exploiting the remaining ones for tracking purposes.

This raises the question of whether companies like Apple will take it upon themselves to prevent such use.

Regardless, even in a scenario where all parameters are lost, there are still alternative ways to convey click IDs and UTM information to websites.”

Brad Redding of Elevar agreed about the disruptive effect from going too far with removing URL tracking information:

“There is still too much basic internet functionality that relies on query parameters, such as logging in, password resets, etc, which are effectively the same as URL parameters in a full URL path.

So we believe the privacy crackdown is going to continue on known trackers by blocking their tracking scripts, cookies generated from them, and their ability to monitor user’s activity through the browser.

As this grows, the reliance on brands to own their first party data collection and bring consent preferences down to a user-level (vs session based) will be critical so they can backfill gaps in conversion data to their advertising partners outside of the browser or device.”

The Future Of Tracking, Privacy And What Marketers Should Expect

Elevar raises good points about how far browsers can go in terms of how much blocking they can do. Their response that it’s down to brands to own their first party data collection and other strategies to accomplish analytics without compromising user privacy.

Given all the laws governing privacy and Internet tracking that have been enacted around the world it looks like privacy will continue to be a trend.

However, at this point it time, the advice is to keep monitoring how far browsers are going but there is no expectation that things will get out of hand.

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