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The Complete Guide for Advanced Users (with Checklist)



If you’re running a website, it’s important to make sure that you’re doing everything you can to optimize it for search engines. Technical SEO is one of the most important aspects of this process, and it can be tricky to get right.

In this follow-up to our Learn SEO: The Complete Guide for Beginners, we will walk you through everything you need to know about technical SEO. We’ll cover topics like crawlability, indexing, and page speed optimization. We’ll also provide tips on how to troubleshoot common issues and fix them. 

What is technical SEO?

Technical SEO is the process of optimizing your website for the technical aspects that search engines use to crawl and index it, with the end goal of increasing rankings.

What is technical SEO?

This includes things like your site’s structure, code, and page speed. By improving these technical factors, you can make your site more visible and easier to find in search results.

Why is technical SEO important?

You can have awesome content, but if your website has technical errors, that awesome content you worked hard on will be difficult to find. This is why technical SEO is important.

For one, it can help improve your site’s visibility in search results. If your site is well-optimized, it will be easier for search engines to find and index it. This can lead to higher rankings and more traffic over time.

Additionally, technical SEO can help improve your site’s user experience. Faster loading times and an easy-to-use interface can make a big difference for your visitors.

Is technical SEO difficult?

Technical SEO can seem daunting at first, but it’s actually not that difficult once you get the hang of it.

The most important thing to remember is that technical SEO is all about making your website as easy to find and index as possible.

That means ensuring that your pages are well-structured and free of errors, and providing clear and concise metadata.

It also means taking steps to improve your site’s speed and performance.

While this may sound like a lot of work, the payoff is worth it—technical SEO can help you attract more organic traffic and improve your search engine rankings.

Is it possible to rank a website properly without technical SEO?

In order for a website to rank on the search engines, technical SEO must be implemented.

This means that:

  • The website must be designed in such a way that it can be easily found and indexed by the search engine crawlers.
  • The website must also have fast loading times and be free of errors.
  • The website’s structure and hierarchy should be easy to understand.

So without optimizing the technical factors in your website, it won’t rank in the search engines.

Technical SEO vs on-page SEO

One common misconception is that technical SEO and on-page SEO are the same thing. But there is a big difference between the two.

On-page SEO refers to the optimization of individual pages on your website. This includes things like title tags, meta descriptions, and keyword research.

Technical SEO, on the other hand, refers to the technical aspects of your site that affect its crawlability and indexation. This includes things like site structure, code, and page speed.

So if you’re looking to improve your website’s visibility in search results, be sure to focus on both technical and on-page SEO, and not just one or the other.

Glossary of terms

Before we move forward, here are some terms for quick reference.


Search engines detect new and updated content by sending search spiders, which crawl and store information from websites for indexing and retrieval.


Search engines index content they find during crawling and store it. As soon as a page is indexed, it is eligible to appear when relevant to a user’s search query.


Search engines search their index database for results relevant to the search query, then retrieve those results and rank them according to what looks to be the most useful to the user.

XML sitemap

An XML sitemap is used to help search engines understand the structure of a website. It’s basically a map that shows search engines what pages are on a site and how they’re related.

This can be especially helpful if a website has a lot of content or if it’s regularly updated.


The robots.txt is a file used to control which files search engine spiders can access on your website. The file is located in the root directory of your website.

Structured data

Structured data is a specific format for organizing information on a website. This format can be used by search engines to understand the contents of a page, and provide more relevant results to users.

Structured data also makes the SERPs more informative by triggering knowledge panels, featured snippets, and event snippets.

Technical SEO audit tools

Here is a list of the tools you can use for your audit.

Screaming Frog SEO Spider

Technical SEO tool Screaming frog interface

We covered Screaming Frog extensively in our Learn SEO guide. Basically, it crawls your links and gives you an overview of what’s going on in your website: Your 404s, duplicates, missing metadata, and more.

Learn SEO The Complete Guide for Beginners Landing Page

Download: Learn SEO: The Complete Guide for Beginners

SE Ranking

New SE Ranking Website Audit Tool Dashboard 3

A paid tool I’ve found to be useful as well for auditing is SE Ranking. The best part for me about this tool is that the report interface is so clean and intuitive. You can check out our review for SE Ranking’s website audit feature here.


Technical SEO tool Semrush site audit

Semrush has a site audit functionality as well which you can use to check orphan pages, core web vitals, and more.

Further reading: Semrush Core Web Vitals Report Review

Google Search Console

Google Search Console Coverage Interface

Google Search Console is an indispensable tool for technical SEO. This is where you check and verify URLs, submit your sitemap, and more.

PageSpeed Insights

Technical SEO tool PageSpeed Insights Analysis

It’s important that you know how fast your website is and what’s causing it to slow down. PageSpeed Insights is the tool you need for that.

Think with Google page speed

No matter how good your content is, if people just leave your website because of technical issues like slowness, your traffic and engagement will remain low.

How to perform a technical SEO audit (with checklist)

One of the most important aspects of technical SEO is auditing your website. This helps you identify any potential issues that could be holding your site back from ranking higher in search results.

How often should I do a technical SEO audit?

There’s no one-size-fits-all answer to this question. The frequency of your technical SEO audits will depend on the size and complexity of your website, as well as how quickly things change on your site.

That being said, we recommend doing even just a short technical SEO audit once a month, and a more in-depth audit every quarter. This will give you a chance to identify and fix any technical issues before they have a chance to hurt your site’s performance.

Let’s begin.

Technical SEO Checklist

Review your site structure

Tools to use: Screaming Frog, Semrush

One of the most important things you can do to improve your website’s SEO is to review its structure. This will help you identify any potential issues that could be hindering your site’s performance in search engines.

Website structure includes things like your site’s hierarchy, URL structure, and internal linking.

For businesses with new sites, planning your website’s structure is the first and most important thing to do.

You have to make sure that both visitors and search engines can easily navigate through your website.

A poorly designed site structure can make things confusing for developers, leaving behind orphan pages. And when this happens, you will have to take the extra time and effort to look for these orphan pages and link to them.

To plan your website structure, you can create a simple chart or outline like this example below:

site structure

Go as simple with your site structure as you can, so visitors and search engines can easily navigate between your web pages.

There are articles that argue that the most important information on a website should only be a couple of clicks deep (see: the 3-click rule), while the Nielsen Norman Group argued that it’s an arbitrary rule not backed by data.

But in 2018, Google’s John Mueller discussed that it does matter—so a good rule of thumb would be to ensure that the most important information is accessible from the homepage.

Look for orphan pages

As mentioned earlier, you will have to look for orphan pages as part of your audit.

Orphan pages are pages of a website that is not internally linked or has zero links from other pages of your website. This makes it difficult for search engine bots to crawl and index these pages.

Orphan pages may occur for different reasons. It could be old blog posts, old products that are not being sold anymore, old services pages that are not being offered anymore.

While there are some pages that are purposely left out such as testing pages and tags pages, it is critical that you check if there are orphan pages that are still relevant for the users.

Does it affect my SEO?

The answer is both yes and no. The effect of orphan pages in a website’s rankings depends on how you look at it. If a page that is orphan was created to be shown to users and has content that is important to users, it hurts your SEO because crawlers can’t see this page thus it won’t appear in the search results. Users won’t be able to see them either.

However, if a page that is orphan was created for other purposes not related to users such as testing functionalities or testing a new website design, then you can leave these pages as it is.

How to find orphan pages using Screaming Frog

To find orphan pages using Screaming Frog, you have to first make sure that your Google Analytics and Google Search Console accounts are connected.

To do that, under Configuration, scroll down to API access and connect Google Analytics and Google Search Console.

Once you got them connected, make sure that under the General tab of the API window, you select Crawl New URLs Discovered in Google Analytics.

After connecting your GA and GSC accounts, under Configuration, go to Spider, and check Crawl Linked XML Sitemaps. Then check the option Crawl These Sitemaps: and input the URL of your website’s sitemap.

After setting everything up, you could now start crawling your website. Once it’s finished crawling, under Crawl Analysis, click on configure and check the box beside Sitemaps. It will start analyzing the crawl log of your website and will allow you to see the orphan pages.

After the analysis, in the Overview under Sitemaps, you can now see all orphan pages that were crawled by Screaming Frog.

Orphan URLs

How to find orphan pages using Semrush

You could also find orphan pages by setting up Site Audit in Semrush. If you don’t have a website set up, create a new project first and let Semrush crawl your website.

Once the set up of the project is complete, go to the Site Audit of your website then go to Issues. Under the Notices tab, scroll down to check if orphan pages report is enabled.

If it hasn’t been enabled yet, connect your Google Analytics account in the Site Audit Settings. The process is similar to Screaming Frog. It will prompt you to log in with your Google Account, select the Profile, Property, and View of your selected Website and click Save.

Once you complete the setup, Semrush will automatically collect data from Google Analytics. Unlike Screaming Frog, you don’t have to connect Google Search Console to get orphan pages data in Semrush.

After a few minutes, refresh your browser and check the Issues tab again. Click the drop down menu Select an Issue and you will find Orphaned Pages (Google Analytics) under Notices.

Optimize or scrap?

Once you collected all orphan pages, it is now up to you what to do with these. You could place them inside a Google Sheet.

  • If a page is still relevant, label them as ‘optimize’ and find possible pages to link to this page.
  • If a page was relevant but now irrelevant such as old products or old services, you could delete them and leave them as 404. No need to redirect these as they don’t carry any link value at all.
  • If a page is purposely left out, you could leave them as it is.

Here’s a sample template that you could use:

While orphan pages can be harmless to your website’s overall rankings and SEO value, it could be a critical issue when important pages are left out. Include monitoring of orphan pages in your regular website maintenance audit. Make sure that your website has a healthy site structure and good flow of link juice by internally linking pages to each other.

Fix 404 pages

Screaming frog 404

The 404 error is an HTTP status code that is sent by a website server to the browser if it is unable to find the webpage a user wants to access. It usually displays a message “Page Not Found” to users.

To find them, open your Screaming Frog and input your website URL, then start the crawl.

Then click Client Error (4xx) to see the status codes.

You can opt to compile these and send them over to your team’s web developers. You can also redirect the URLs (301) you believe are still useful to the new pages created to replace them.

Secure your website

Switch to HTTPS by using a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). SSL encrypts the link between a web server and a browser.

If you’re building a website from scratch, you can add this to your purchase for free depending on the hosting you’re using.

If not, you can ask the web developers assigned to your website to purchase the SSL and activate it. You can also see how to do it by yourself through this in-depth guide by HubSpot.

Generate and submit an XML sitemap

Tools to use: Google Search Console

You can check if your website has a sitemap by entering in the search bar: www.[website]/sitemap.xml.

SEO Hacker Sitemaps

If your website doesn’t have one yet, you can use a plugin such as the Google Sitemap Generator Plugin by Arne Brachhold. You can also use to generate your sitemap.

XML sitemaps

After you generate your sitemap, you need to submit it. To do that, you need to open Google Search Console, then click Sitemaps. You can then add your sitemap URL and submit.

Submit XML sitemap

Further reading: Ultimate Sitemap SEO Guide

Check your robots.txt

To verify your website’s robots.txt, you can type in the search bar: www.[website]/robots.txt.


If you don’t have one yet, open your Notepad and copy-paste the following:

User-agent: *
Disallow: /wp-admin/
Allow: /wp-admin/admin-ajax.php

Sitemap: https://www.[website]/sitemap.xml

This is the default directive found in a basic robots.txt file.

You can add other rules based on your needs.

Once you’re done, save it as a .txt file and upload it to the root directory of your website. You can ask the web developers to do so or you can contact your web hosting service provider to help you out.

Further reading: The Complete Guide to Robots.txt and Noindex Meta Tag

Check your robots meta tags

Tools to use: Screaming Frog

Robots meta tags pieces of code used to instruct search engines what to follow, what not to follow, what to index, and what not to index. It is found in the <head> section of your webpage.

They usually look like this:

<meta name=”robots” content=”noindex”>

You can opt to press CTRL+U on an individual page to view the page source and check for the meta tag, or you can use Screaming Frog to check the directives in your website.

Screaming Frog noindex

For example, /category/marketing/ has a directive of noindex, follow. Let’s look at it through the page source:

technical SEO noindex follow

There you go.

Further reading: What Meta Robots Tag Are For

Optimize URL slugs

Next, optimize your URL slugs.

SEO Philippines

When you create a slug, make sure that it contains your keyword, and that it’s as short yet descriptive as possible.

So instead of using /seo-in-the-philippines/ as our slug, we just use /seo-philippines/.

It’s much easier to understand and remember. It’s also a good web accessibility practice.

If the webpage already exists, you can still change the URL—but make sure to redirect the old URL to the new one. In our case, we use the 301 Redirects plugin, so our redirect settings look like this:

WP 301 Redirects

Provide clear and concise metadata

Meta tags are snippets of information that describe a page content—they appear in the source code, not on the page. Meta tags are essentially little content descriptors that help tell search engines what a web page is about.

According to WordStream, “The “meta” stands for “metadata,” which is the kind of data these tags provide—data about the data on your page.”

To optimize your meta tags, you can opt to change your title tags and meta descriptions—and of course, include your keyword.

A rule of thumb for title tags is to keep them between 50-60 characters.

For meta descriptions, keep them under 155 characters.

Technical SEO meta description

When you have a compelling and informative title tag and description, the likelihood that users will click on your page will increase.

And when Google notices you’re getting more clicks through your page, it will tag you as a relevant site, thus making you rank higher.

Further reading: INFOGRAPH: 5 Steps to Create the Perfect Meta Description

Optimize site speed and performance

Tools to use: PageSpeed Insights (you can also choose Google Lighthouse (Chrome Extension) or Test My Site)

Another important aspect of technical SEO is page speed optimization. Site speed is a ranking factor for both desktop and mobile searches, so it’s important to make sure your pages load quickly.

Do take note that some websites use site speed and page speed interchangeably.

However, some websites say that site speed is different from page speed.

Nevertheless, it’s important that the content on your webpage loads faster. This is to prevent your site visitors from leaving your website and going to your competitors.

Optimizing images

If you use a large image size, it will greatly affect your site speed. In this case, you need to reduce your image size.

The trouble with reducing your image size though is that it also reduces its quality. The good news is that there are plugins or scripts that let you decrease the size of your file without reducing its quality.

To reduce your image size without compromising its quality, simply choose the right combination of your file format and compression type you will use. Ideally, your image’s file format should be in PNG and at a medium compression rate.

You can use the following tools when optimizing images for your webpage:

  • Adobe Photoshop
  • Gimp
  • FileOptimizer

ImageResizer dashboard

Enabling browser caching

The concept of browser caching is straightforward: it takes whatever files you define as files that don’t change often (such as your company logo and website menu) and downloads them once to the visitor’s browser.

This way, they don’t have to be redownloaded every single time they visit your website, making your webpages load much faster.

There are three ways to go about this:

Ask your web hosting provider

You can contact your web hosting provider and have them edit your site’s .htaccess file. That way, you don’t have to touch anything in your website.

Edit the .htaccess file yourself

The header says it all. I wouldn’t recommend this unless you have knowledge on how to troubleshoot in case you make a mistake. If you’re using Yoast, here’s their guide.

Use a plugin

There are various plugins you can choose from that you’ll just download and activate. Quick and easy as pie. Just check with your web developers to confirm if they won’t be causing any issues with other plugins.

Enable Gzip Compression

When a browser loads your website, it requires downloading all the relevant files stored on your server. If your files like HTML, PHP, CSS, and Javascript are too large to load, chances are it will affect your site speed as well.

This is where Gzip comes into play. What it does is that it compresses or reduces the size of your file by up to 30% or less than its original size so your webpage loads faster.

You can use the Gzip Compression Test tool to check if Gzip is enabled on your website, or if you simply want to check your website’s Gzip compression rate.


A word of caution. When you use Gzip, you’re only meant to compress files, not images—or you’ll end up with low-quality, pixelated images on your webpage.

There are many other aspects you need to check when it comes to optimizing your site speed. I’ve only included three in this post. For our in-depth guide to site-speed optimization, check out:

Further reading: Ultimate Guide to Site-Speed Optimization

Also, keep in mind that consistency is key when it comes to site speed optimization. An optimized site speed requires adding scripts or plugins on occasion, so it’s best to always do a site audit every month to keep site downtime from happening.

Site Speed Optimization Package

Fix content issues

If you’re having trouble with technical SEO, there are a few common issues that could be to blame.

One of the most common is duplicate content. This can happen if you have multiple pages with similar or identical content.

To fix this, you’ll need to either apply a 301 redirect or add rel=”canonical” tags to your pages.

Another common issue is thin content. This happens when a page has very little useful content.

Different websites have their own opinions on how long content should be—Yoast recommends >300 words for regular posts or pages, while HubSpot claims that your content length shouldn’t go lower than 2,100 words.

Which one should you follow? I would argue that it’s not exactly a matter of word count, but of content quality.

  • Does your blog post go in-depth and answer what your target audience needs to know about the topic?
  • Does it match search intent?

I suggest focusing on those instead of word vomiting irrelevant content just to “fix” thin content.

Further reading: How TO NOT Screw up Your Canonical Tags and Search Intent SEO for Beginners

Implement structured data

According to Yoast,

“Where Schema is the language in which you present your content, structured data is the actual data you provide. It describes the content on your page and what actions site visitors can perform with this content. This is the input you give search engines to get a better understanding of your pages.”

Technical SEO schema

Simply put, it helps make your page more understandable for search engines and users.

To implement structured data, there are a number of things you can do, but I would suggest using a plugin like Yoast or WPSSO Core.

It gives you the option to select entity types and automatically applies the schema for you instead of you having to manually choose a template and inputting data.

Schema Markup and Structured data

Further reading: How to Create Structured Data Markup for Rich Snippets

Prioritize mobile-friendliness

Percentage of Global Mobile Traffic

Source: BroadbandSearch

The mobile friendliness of a website can be measured by how well it is designed and optimized for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.

Just looking at the graph above, we can confidently say it’s integral to optimize for mobile.

Install an AMP (Accelerated Mobile Pages) plugin to your website

AMP for WordPress

Instead of having to manually work on optimizing your site for mobile, we recommend installing the AMP for WordPress plugin.

This is what we use here in SEO Hacker, and it’s made our job a lot easier when it comes to optimizing for mobile.

  • Install the AMP WordPress plugin.
  • Activate the plugin—what it will do is append /amp on all your pages but it won’t redirect visitors to them.
  • Edit your .htaccess file—you could use an FTP program to do this. I personally use Filezilla.
  • (Optional) Just in case you want to check if your AMP pages are working across the board—in your .htaccess file, paste this code:

RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !/amp$ [NC]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} (android|blackberry|googlebot-mobile|iemobile|iphone|ipod|#opera mobile|palmos|webos) [NC]
RewriteRule ^([a-zA-Z0-9-]+)([/]*)$$1/amp [L,R=302]

Note that you have to change to your site’s domain name. I explicitly made the redirect into a 302 because we don’t want all the link equity to be passed on to your /amp pages since it’s merely an accelerated mobile page version.

  • Edit the CSS to make your Accelerated Mobile Pages look and feel more like your site. You can edit the CSS using FTP by going to your wp-content > plugins > AMP > template.php
  • Use rel=”canonical” tags to your original pages. Just to be sure to keep anything Panda-related off your back.

That’s it!

SEO Hacker AMP

You could see that SEO Hacker’s mobile version still look and feel like our desktop page design—without all the fluff.

How can I make AMP work for my non-WordPress site?

You will have to go to the AMP Project’s site and learn how to integrate it via hard-code, hands-on.

If you want to know more about AMP, Moz’s Whiteboard Friday does a swell job on explaining it further:

Verifying your AMP pages on Google Search Console

Once you’ve set up AMP on your website, Google will start crawling and indexing them. In a few days, you should now see that there is an AMP section under Enhancements in your Google Search Console.

Technical SEO AMP SEO Hacker GSC

Google Search Console will notify you if there are any errors in your AMP pages. Just like any other coverage errors, it is divided into 3; Errors, Valid with Warnings, and Valid. When you first apply AMP on your website, there is a high chance that most of your pages will fall under Valid with Warnings.

Don’t worry, your AMP pages will still be available to users. It’s just that there are missing data that could further enhance your AMP pages such as structured data or image sizes.

Structured Data on AMP pages

Aside from loading speeds and user experience on mobile, adding structured data on your AMP pages also makes them eligible for Rich Results.

If you’re using WordPress, there are plugins that enable structured data on AMP pages. Google highly recommends having structured data on both the original page and the AMP version.

Further reading: The SEO Hacker Mobile Optimization Checklist

How do I know if my technical SEO is working?

There are a number of metrics you can measure to gauge the effectiveness of your technical SEO.

Organic traffic

This measures the number of visitors coming to your site from search engines. If you’re seeing an increase in organic traffic, it’s likely that your technical SEO is working.

Click-through rate (CTR) from SERPs

This measures the percentage of people who click on your listing when it appears in search results. A high CTR indicates that your listing is relevant and appealing to users, and that your technical SEO is working.

You can also check if you’re showing up on the Knowledge Panels and other snippets.

Loading times

If you’ve optimized for page speed correctly, you will notice that your site is a lot faster and smoother than before.

Troubleshooting common technical SEO issues

I asked some folks over at Reddit what they wanted to know about technical SEO, and some of them gave me questions that I wanted to include here.

How to fix unused CSS/Javascripts in WordPress

Reduce unused CSS and javascript

Unused code can make your website load slower, but thankfully there is a way to at least reduce this issue.

Use WP Rocket

WP Rocket is a plugin you can use to remove unused CSS and delay JavaScript execution.

You can check out and follow this really good tutorial from WPBeginner.

How to fix XML sitemap errors

An XML sitemap is a file that lists all the important pages of your website. They ensure that Google is able to crawl and index your web pages.

XML sitemaps also help search engines understand your site structure.

Essentially, a good XML sitemap tool will greatly benefit your website. However, if it’s not done correctly, you might increase your risk of not getting recognized by Google.

Here are some pitfalls that you need to avoid with XML sitemap:

Submitted URL has crawl issues

This is one of the most common XML sitemap issues you will come across in Google Search Console.

This means that your sitemap has listed a page with a known crawl error, but Google will not tell you exactly what kind of error it was.

You will need to reanalyze your sitemap for any error that is undetected. The most common crawl issue errors are:

  • Robots.txt blocking crawlers
  • Error pages other than 404, such as “403” forbidden and 401
  • Javascript or CSS blocked by search engines

You can address these crawl issues with the 11 steps I outlined earlier.

Then go to Google Search Console and resubmit your sitemap.

Sitemap size error

As we discussed in this post earlier, size matters in SEO. Your sitemap size must NOT:

  • Be longer than 50MB
  • Contain no more than 1,000 images per URL
  • Contain no more than 50,000 URLs

If you have a simple site, your sitemap’s size shouldn’t be an issue.

However, if you have (for example) an eCommerce website that’s growing fast, it’s best that you create separate sitemaps for every 10,000 URLs you have.

Fewer URLs mean fewer crawl issues for you.

I suggest that you take a look at Common XML sitemap errors by Yoast and Polishing a sitemap: fixing errors, weeding out trash pages, and finding hidden gems by SE Ranking for a more in-depth treatment of this issue.

How to handle multiple connected websites

The Redditor who asked this question works as a software developer who put their apps under different <appname.>app websites.

It’s generally not recommended to have multiple domains or websites for the following reasons:

  • They can compete for the same keywords.
  • They can be expensive.
  • It can take a while for you to rank the websites because you’ll be doing a full SEO strategy for each of them.

I recommend to figure out first what the purpose is of your website. For example, is it to showcase your work as a software developer?

In that case, you can put your apps under one domain, then create subdirectories in your website for the various apps you want to feature.

This works especially if your apps are connected to one another, or they generally fall under a specific theme (e.g., productivity tools}.

HubSpot CRM

For example, under HubSpot you have various software you can check out—and they’re all under

If they are completely different and you want to market them as such (and you have the time and energy to SEO each of them), then you can go ahead and put them in different websites.

Key takeaway

Technical SEO is one of the most important aspects of ranking your website properly. It covers all the behind-the-scenes elements that are necessary for Google and other search engines to understand your site correctly.

Without proper technical SEO, it’s difficult to rank at all, let alone achieve high SERP positions. That’s why we created this guide—to help you audit and troubleshoot any issues on your own website and improve your rankings with these 11 steps.

If you want us to take care of your technical SEO for you, check out our SEO Services Package or contact us today for a free consultation.

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Top YouTube Videos, Shorts, And Ads of 2022



Top YouTube Videos, Shorts, And Ads of 2022

Examining YouTube’s list of the top trending videos and top Shorts of 2022, as well as the YouTube Ads Leaderboard: 2022 year-end-wrap-up can teach content marketers, content creators, and digital advertisers some important lessons that they can apply in 2023.

But, it helps if you have a secret decoder ring to decipher why there are three lists – and why each one uses a different methodology to come up with the rankings.

YouTube unveiled its first list of the 10 most-watched YouTube videos back in December 2010. Unfortunately, that list taught many marketers that “view count” was the only metric that mattered.

But, I got my secret decoder ring back in October 2012, when YouTube started adjusting the ranking of videos in YouTube search results to reward engaging videos that kept viewers watching.

In other words, YouTube replaced “view count” with “watch time.”

This was a significant shift, because “watch time” gives you a sense of what content viewers actually watch, as opposed to videos that they click on and then abandon.

In December 2012, YouTube shifted from unveiling its 10 “most-watched” videos of the year to unveiling its “top trending videos,” based on time spent watching, sharing, commenting, liking, and other factors.

In other words, “watch time” and “engagements” were now the metrics that mattered.

Today, YouTube’s algorithm rewards “viewer satisfaction.”

In other words, YouTube doesn’t pay attention to videos; it pays attention to viewers.

So, rather than trying to make videos that’ll make an algorithm happy, focus on making videos that make your viewers happy.

This brings us to YouTube’s lists of “trending videos” and “top Shorts” for 2022.

To learn important lessons that can be applied in 2023, we need to realize that YouTube’s discovery system uses both absolute and relative watch time as signals when deciding audience engagement.

Ultimately, YouTube wants both short and long videos to succeed, so relative watch time is more important for short videos, and absolute watch time is more important for longer videos.

Top 7 Trending Videos Of 2022

1. “So Long Nerds“ By Technoblade (6:32 long, 88.3 million Views, 10.2 million engagements)

In this moving tribute, the father of beloved Minecraft creator Technoblade reads a farewell letter from his son.

The gamer lost his battle with cancer in June, but his legacy remains on YouTube.

2. “Watch The Uncensored Moment Will Smith Smacks Chris Rock On Stage At The Oscars, Drops F-bomb” By Guardian News (1:24 long, 104 million Views, and 1.8 million engagements)

It was the smack heard ‘round the world: Academy Award winner Will Smith went off-script and slapped Chris Rock, live on-stage, at the film industry’s most prestigious event.

3. “Hi, I’m Dream” By Dream (5:42 long, 48.5 million Views, and 4.7 million engagements)

Dream’s ingenuity within Minecraft has led him to become a top creator with a devoted fanbase.

But no one knew what he looked like IRL, until now.

4. “ Dre, Snoop Dogg, Eminem, Mary J. Blige, Kendrick Lamar & 50 Cent Full Pepsi Sb Lvi Halftime Show” By NFL (14:41 long, 146 million Views, and 3.5 million engagements)

Lose yourself in this epic Super Bowl halftime show packed with some of the biggest artists in hip-hop history: Dr. Dre, Snoop, Eminem, Mary J. Blige, Kendrick Lama, and 50 Cent.

5. “I Built Willy Wonka’s Chocolate Factory!” By Mrbeast (17:01 long, 132 million Views, and 5.1 million engagements)

In a “Willy Wonka” inspired warehouse, MrBeast challenges contestants to traverse a chocolate river, climb a candy wall, compete in confection-themed games, and indulge in their sweetest fantasies.

6. “Pranks Destroy Scam Callers- Glitterbomb Payback” By Mark Rober (26:41 long, 55.9 million Views, and 2.2 million engagements).

Engineer Mark Rober exacts dazzling revenge on a scam call center in the latest version of his glitterbomb series.

7. “Being Not Straight” By Jaiden Animations (15:22 long, 17.8 million Views, and 1.7 million engagements)

In this coming-out video, Jaiden Animations depicts a personal journey from adolescence to adulthood, sharing how they discovered their sexual identity along the way.

Top 7 Shorts Of 2022

1. “Diver Cracks Egg At 45 Ft Deep #Shorts” By Shangerdanger (0:56 long, 251 million Views, and 12.3 million engagements)

The ocean floor is a mysterious place. It’s full of unknown sea creatures, strange plants, and…chicken eggs?!

Join Shangerdanger as he cracks up the internet and dives egg-first into the blue depths.

2. “Sarah Trust Challenges” By Hingaflips (0:31 long, 142 million Views, and 6.5 million engagements)

Better than parkour? This is Trampwall: an epic sport where acrobats defy gravity and leap off a wall, onto a trampoline, to pull off mind-blowing aerial stunts.

3. “Come With Me To Shave My Fluffy Dog! #Doggrooming #Grooming #Goldendoodle” By Brodie That Dood (0:52 long, 108 million Views, and 6.8 million engagements)

For years, his long fluffy fur has made Brodie one of the most iconic dogs on YouTube. So, the heartbreak was real when it was decided that he needed a close trim.

4. “Dave and Busters Bet Me 1000 Tickets I Couldn’t Do This…” By Chris Ivan (0:59 long, 83.6 million Views, and 6.3 million engagements).

No one does trick shots like creator Chris Ivan. In this Short, he attempts to land a plunger on a Dave & Buster’s sign.

The prize? 1,000 tickets … if he can pull it off.

5. “That Gap Between Your Car Seat and Center Console” By Jay & Sharon (0:58 long, 182 million Views, and 6.4 million engagements)

We’ve all lost something in the dreaded gap between the car seat and the center console.

In this comedic sketch, creators Jay & Sharon show us what’s really going on down there.

6. “Welcome To The Stomach #Shorts” By Adrian Bliss (0:34 long, 118 million Views, and 7.0 million engagements)

In this bite-sized skit, witty creator Adrian Bliss brings to life all the characters trying to gain entrance – and party in – his space-limited stomach.

7. “This Magic Trick Explained (America’s Got Talent)” By Zack D. Films (0:34 long, 97.4 million Views, and 5.6 million engagements).

How did he do it? The judges of “America’s Got Talent” were confounded by this magic trick.

But not internet-sleuth Zack D., who unveils its clever secret.

Top 7 YouTube Ads Of 2022

Meanwhile, YouTube uses an entirely different methodology to determine the top YouTube ad for its 2022 year-end wrap-up Leaderboard. This makes sense.

The top ads are generally the ones with the biggest budgets, which drive up view counts, but not always engagements.

1. “Amazon’s Big Game Commercial: Mind Reader” By Amazon (1:31 long, 69.7 million Views, and 25,700 engagements)

The creative agency for this ad was Lucky Generals and the media agency was IPG – Rufus.

The ad’s description asks, “Is Alexa reading minds a good idea? No. No, it is not.”

2. “Welcome To Clan Capital! Clash Of Clans New Update!” By Clash Of Clans (1:20 long, 52.9 million Views, and 212,000 engagements)

The creative agency was Psyop, and the media agency was in-house.

The ad’s description says,

“Welcome to the ultimate clan destination! A place where you and your clan can BUILD and BATTLE together! A place called CLAN CAPITAL!”

3. “Goal Of The Century X BTS | Yet To Come (Hyundai Ver.) Official Music Video” By Hyundaiworldwide (4:08 long, 40.5 million Views, and 886,000 engagements)

The ad’s description says,

“Our ‘Goal of the Century’ can’t be achieved by one individual alone, but we can achieve it if we all join forces and unite.

Just like football players come together as a team to score goals, we aim to use the power of football to go forward together in pursuit of the greatest goal – ‘A united world for sustainability.’”

4. “Harry Potter 20th Anniversary: Return To Hogwarts | Official Trailer | HBO Max” By HBO Max (1:58 long, 27.3 million Views, and 739,000 engagements)

The creative agency was in-house, and the media agency was Hearts & Science.

The ad’s description says,

“Harry Potter 20th Anniversary: Return to Hogwarts invites fans on a magical first-person journey through one of the most beloved film franchises of all time as it reunites Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, Emma Watson, and other esteemed cast members and filmmakers across all eight Harry Potter films for the first time to celebrate the anniversary of the franchise’s first film, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone.”

5. “Introducing iPhone 14 Pro | Apple” by Apple (4:20 long, 23.8 million views, and 571,000 engagements)

The ad’s description asks, “What lies beyond a traditional smartphone? Let’s find out. This is iPhone 14 Pro.”

6. All of Us Are Dead | Official Trailer | Netflix” by Netflix (2:35 long, 22.6 million views, and 518,000 engagements)

The creative agency was The Refinery, and the media agency was in-house. The ad’s description says,

“All of us will die. There is no hope.” The school turned into a bloody battleground and our friends into worst enemies. Who will make it out alive?”

7. Sally’s Seashells (Extended) | Big Game Commercial 2022“ by Squarespace (1:07 long, 21.6 million views, and 67,600 engagements)

The media agency was in-house. The ad’s description says,

“See everything that Sally sells in this extended cut of our 2022 Big Game commercial. Starring Zendaya as Sally and narrated by andré 3000.”

Most Important Lesson That Marketers Can Apply In 2023

Looking back at YouTube’s lists of top trending videos, top Shorts, and top ads for 2022, there is a meta-lesson that marketers can learn: one size does not fit all.

Different metrics matter when measuring different types of video, and different types of ads are better for different marketing objectives.

Or, as the British say, “There are horses for courses.”

Now, that’s a lesson that all of us can apply in 2023, and beyond.

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Meta Reinstates Trump to Facebook & Instagram



Meta Reinstates Trump to Facebook & Instagram

Meta announced that the suspension of former president Trump from Facebook and Instagram will be lifted within a few weeks, with “guardrails” in place to discourage repeat offenses.

2021 Suspension of Trump

Meta indefinitely suspended the account of then-president Trump after he praised the people who engaged in anti-government violence that ended in several deaths.

The suspension was reviewed by the Meta Oversight Board who concluded that the indefinite suspension was inconsistent with rules in place for dealing with policy violations.

The Oversight Board wrote:

“…it was not appropriate for Facebook to impose the indeterminate and standardless penalty of indefinite suspension. Facebook’s normal penalties include removing the violating content, imposing a time-bound period of suspension, or permanently disabling the page and account.

The Board insists that Facebook review this matter to determine and justify a proportionate response that is consistent with the rules that are applied to other users of its platform.”

Facebook responded to the board that the suspension will last for two years beginning on January 7, 2021 after which the suspension would be reconsidered.

The indefinite suspension remained in place until the announcement that it will be lifted in the weeks following January 25, 2022, just over two years after the suspension.

Why the Suspension of Trump was Lifted

The review of the suspension was timed for two years after the imposition of the original suspension on January 7, 2021. This was by agreement with the Oversight Board.

Meta undertook a review of whether Trump continued to pose a risk to public safety and decided that enough had changed to lower the risk.

The explanation of the decision indicated that multiple factors were considered:

“To assess whether the serious risk to public safety that existed in January 2021 has sufficiently receded, we have evaluated the current environment according to our Crisis Policy Protocol, which included looking at the conduct of the US 2022 midterm elections, and expert assessments on the current security environment.

Our determination is that the risk has sufficiently receded, and that we should therefore adhere to the two-year timeline we set out.

As such, we will be reinstating Mr. Trump’s Facebook and Instagram accounts in the coming weeks. However, we are doing so with new guardrails in place to deter repeat offenses.”

Facebook Public Figure Penalty Guardrails

Meta published updated policies, Restricting accounts by public figures during civil unrest, that describe the new protocols for dealing with public figures who violate Meta guidelines.

The updated rules apply to both Facebook and Instagram.

The new policies outline tiered penalties increasing in severity depending on the content violations.

Meta explained that the goal of the penalties were to deter violations of their policies.

The penalties last from one to thirty days to as long as two years for especially egregious violations.

Three factors will be considered to determine the severity of the penalty:

  1. “The severity of the violation and the public figure’s history on Facebook or Instagram, including current and past violations.
  2. The public figure’s potential influence over, and relationship to, the individuals engaged in violence.
  3. The severity of the violence and any related physical harm.”


Heightened Penalties

Public figures who return after a suspension will face heightened penalties, including disabling the account of any public figure that fails to respond to repeated warnings.

Meta’s rules targets QAnon content and outlines specific measures they will take that will limit the reach of penalized public figures.

That means anyone who is following the restricted account of a public figure will not see content posted to those accounts, plus the removal of reshare buttons.

“Our updated protocol also addresses content that does not violate our Community Standards but that contributes to the sort of risk that materialized on January 6, such as content that delegitimizes an upcoming election or is related to QAnon.

We may limit the distribution of such posts, and for repeated instances, may temporarily restrict access to our advertising tools.

This step would mean that content would remain visible on Mr. Trump’s account but would not be distributed in people’s Feeds, even if they follow Mr. Trump.

We may also remove the reshare button from such posts, and may stop them being recommended or run as ads.”

Response to Reinstatement of Trump

Facebook’s announcement stated that they expect to be criticized but that the decision was guided by guidelines set down by the Oversight Board.

The response on social media was predictably passionate, with congressman Adam Schiff characterizing the reinstatement as Facebook having “caved.”

Others accused Facebook of having no rules or procedures even though Meta’s decision was based on rules and procedures.

Many of the top tweets commenting on the Trump reinstatement commented that Facebook’s decision was based on greed while others lamented the lack of consequences from Trump’s action, even though he was punished with a two year suspension.

Read Meta’s Announcement:

Ending Suspension of Trump’s Accounts With New Guardrails to Deter Repeat Offenses



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Wayback Machine: 5 Alternatives To Try



Wayback Machine: 5 Alternatives To Try

Much of the web is ephemeral.

Web pages exist until they don’t. The content on them exists until it’s updated – and then it’s gone.

Unless you go digging in an archive.

Archiving the web is important for cultural and anthropological research. It’s also helpful for business reasons, like competitive analysis. It can even help document or monitor political processes.

Your particular reason for seeking archived content might determine which service works best.

The Wayback Machine is the most commonly known archive.

Screenshot,, January 2023.

The Internet Archive is a nonprofit organization, and the Wayback Machine is the web version of its archive, containing an absolutely massive amount of data.

You can request that it save a webpage in its current state, as well as make use of tools, like an API.

As huge as the Wayback Machine archive is, it’s likely not 100% complete. If you’re having trouble finding something specific or wondering if there are alternatives with more features, these alternatives might help.

I won’t be going over paid SaaS subscriptions, as I don’t consider a paid service a true alternative to a free one provided by a nonprofit.

Let’s go!

1. The Memento Project

Memento is an exceptional alternative to the Wayback Machine because it aggregates several different sources, including the Wayback Machine itself.

On the website, you can access archives from several sources by using the Time Travel tool.

Wayback Machine: 5 Alternatives To TryScreenshot,, January 2023.

This is the first distinction that makes Memento so cool, and it includes some of the other archives on this list, too. That means it’s a customizable experience and likely one of the most complete.

Memento’s other distinct feature is the Chrome extension that allows you to select the date on which you’d like to view your current page. This brings the tool to where you’re browsing instead of making you put a URL into a form.

You can also create a snapshot of a page and generate a link to it that won’t break. This is particularly useful for citation.

If you’re concerned a page might disappear, or the content might get updated, but you want to use the information, creating one of these links ensures that people will be able to see your original source.

2. is another “snapshot” tool. It allows you to save a link to a page as it currently exists.

Following the link will send users to an unalterable version of the page.

Wayback Machine: 5 Alternatives To TryScreenshot,, January 2023.

It also features some relatively advanced search queries you can perform on domains and URLs to find snapshots that have been saved with the tool.

This tool also features a Chrome extension as well as an Android app.

Searches on Memento can include results from

3. WebCite

WebCite has powerful applications for authors, journalists, academics, and publishers.

It offers a variety of ways to build and present the archived pages and the URLs.

Wayback Machine: 5 Alternatives To TryScreenshot, r, January 2023.

Unfortunately, at the time of publishing, it doesn’t appear to be taking new requests. But you can still access already archived pages. When and if it starts accepting requests again, it’s a very useful tool for that.

Its most powerful feature for authors and publishers is the ability to upload a manuscript directly to the website.

The tool will scan every link in an uploaded manuscript and automatically create archives of each of the pages linked to as they currently exist. This saves a lot of time if you’ve used a lot of website citations.

If you’ve created content that you want people to be able to create snapshots of, then you can add a specific WebCite link to your page that users can click on. This embeds archive functionality into your page, saving users time if they decide to use your work as a citation.

4. GitHub

GitHub is a development and collaboration platform that also prioritizes public projects and open-source code.

It documents and archives open-source code and programs, and is searchable by other archives such as the Wayback Machine.

Wayback Machine: 5 Alternatives To TryScreenshot,, January 2023.

But, if you’re looking for something related to code or software development, it might be easier to go straight to GitHub instead of using another archive service.

While it does have paid business plans, GitHub is free for the average user. It even offers 15GB of storage and some computing power in its cloud developer environment for free for your personal use.

5. Country-Specific Web Archives

Several countries run their own web archives.

These can be particularly helpful alternatives to the Wayback Machine if you’re looking for a website highly relevant to a specific location, or the culture of a country.

More focused archives might have more complete information if you’re having trouble finding it elsewhere, although again, I want to mention that the first alternative in this list, Memento, pulls from several different country-specific archives.

I should also note that many archives specific to a country, region, educational institution, or individual library are partnered with Archive-it, a service provider built by The Internet Archive (makers of the Wayback Machine).

They curate specific collections based on relevance, but all Archive-it partners leverage the same source: The Internet Archive.

These are a few of the country-specific web archives:


When you’re looking for alternatives to the Wayback Machine, you might not realize that a great many of them, in part or in whole, are powered by the same archive.

But there are other services out there you can use. Some have more helpful features, depending on what your goals are.

This isn’t an exhaustive list of alternative tools, but it’s most of the easily accessible tools for the average user.

Others require monthly payments, and some are free to academic and legal institutions, but not to individual users.

I chose to focus on the best of the tools that you could go and use right now with no fuss.

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