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What It Is & How to Implement It



What It Is & How to Implement It

Schema markup is code that helps search engines understand the information on a page. Google can use it to show rich results (also known as rich snippets), which can earn a page more clicks.
Examples of Google SERP result with and without schema markup, respectively

Here’s a basic example of what the code can look like:

<script type="application/ld+json">

  "@context": "",

  "@type": "Movie",

  "name": "Barbie",

  "dateCreated": "2023-07-21",

  "image": "",



       "@type": "Person",

       "name": "Greta Gerwig",

       "birthDate": "1983-08-04"




You can see that, unlike the words on a page, schema is a form of structured data. Its standardized format means there’s no chance of Google misinterpreting it. That’s why Google uses it for rich results.

In this guide, you’ll learn about the different types of schema you can use, when to add it, and how.

Schema can be used to enhance many different types of content. There are 803 types of schema listed on at the moment, but Google only supports a handful of these, according to its website. Google hinted it may support more formats in the future, though.

Here are a few examples of the types of markup Google supports that you can add to your website:

  • Article 
  • Breadcrumb 
  • Carousel
  • Course
  • Event
  • Fact Check
  • FAQs 
  • HowTo 
  • Image Metadata
  • Job Posting
  • Local Business 
  • Logo 
  • Movie
  • Product 
  • Recipe 
  • Review 
  • Sitelinks search box
  • Video


Google significantly reduced visibility for HowTo and FAQs rich results on August 8, 2023. FAQ results will now only be shown for well-known, authoritative government and health sites. HowTo rich results will now only be shown for desktop users.

Let’s take a more detailed look at the most common types of markup you can add to your site.


Article schema can be added to your news, blog, or sports article pages to help Google better understand your page. 

There are two documented benefits of adding Article schema:

  • It helps Google to show better title text, images, and date information.
  • It tells Google “more explicitly what your content is about.”

The inference here is by adding Article schema to your content, it may be shown for more relevant queries. 

Here’s an example of what the Article schema can look like.


Adding Product markup means users can see the price, availability, review ratings, shipping information, and more in the search results. Product markup is useful for e-commerce stores, as it can give potential customers a more detailed view of the product before they even enter your website.

Product rich results can look like this:

Product rich results example, via

Here’s an example of what the Product schema can look like.

Local Business

Local Business markup enables Google to understand your business. Adding schema allows Google to show your business hours, different departments in your business, and more.

Local Business rich results can look like this:

Local Business example, via

Here’s an example of what the code for a Local Business listing can look like.

Sitelinks search box

Adding Sitelink markup means searchers of your website will see related links of your important pages when searching for your brand on Google.

Here’s what a rich result for Sitelink markup looks like:

Sitelinks search box example, via

Here’s an example of what the Sitelinks search box schema can look like.


Event rich results are one of the best ways to get more attention for your upcoming events, whether online or offline. Event rich results feature prominently within Google search results.

Here’s an example of what the Event rich result can look like:

Event schema example, via

Here’s an example of what schema for a physical location Event can look like.

How to add schema markup to your website

All websites should add basic schema, but only add the schema that’s most appropriate for your website. 

Not sure what to add? 

Here are some basic examples:

  • E-commerce websites – Add Product, Breadcrumb, Person/Organization schema.
  • Blogs or news websites – Add Article, Breadcrumb, Person/Organization schema.

Or if you have a more topically focused website, you can add more specific schema types. For example:

  • Food websites – Add Recipe schema.
  • Recruitment website – Add Job Posting schema.

So how can you add schema?

The good news is that most modern website content management systems (CMSes) can add basic schema implementation right out of the box.

Generally speaking, if you use a popular CMS like Wix or Webflow, it’s just a matter of tweaking the schema settings to your preferences.

If you use WordPress, you can opt for a plugin like Yoast SEO. When you sign up, part of the onboarding process involves adding Organization or Person schema. 

Onboarding Organization/Person schema, via Yoast SEO

Once you’ve completed onboarding, you can click on the “Schema” tab within a post, and you’ll be able to tweak the settings further. By default, the schema page type is set to “Web Page,” and the post type is set to “Article.”

Yoast schema settings, via Yoast SEO plugin


For more detailed guidance, check out Yoast’s guide. If you don’t use WordPress and use a platform like Wix or Webflow, check out the schema markup guides below.

Another method to add schema to your website is by manually adding the code yourself. 

Although this method enables total customization of schema on your website, it’s worth seeking advice from an SEO consultant or developer before you get started, especially if you’re not confident with code.

Schema markup code can be generated in three different languages: microdata, RDFa, and JSON-LD.

Even though Google supports all three languages, it recommends you use JSON-LD (Javascript Object Notation for Linked Objects), as it’s less prone to user errors.

This has also been confirmed separately by John Mueller.

We currently prefer JSON-LD markup. I think most of the new structured data that are kind of come out for JSON-LD first. So that’s what we prefer.

John Mueller

You can generate the raw JSON-LD code yourself using a tool like Merkle’s Schema Markup Generator, Google’s Structured Data Markup Helper, or even ChatGPT. I’m going to use Merkle’s schema generator to generate my code. 

To do this, head to the schema generator and select the type of schema you want to generate. I’ve chosen Event. 

Schema Markup Generator JSON-lD, via

Then add the information into the required fields. I’ve added a fictional SEO conference as an example.

Event schema generation, via

Once you’ve created the JSON-LD code, add it to either the <head> or the <body> of the page you want it on. Google has confirmed either is fine. If you are technically minded, you can even inject the code using Javascript with Google Tag Manager.

How to validate your schema markup

To check a single page’s schema markup, you can use the Schema Validator or Google’s Rich Results Test tool. 

If you’ve already installed Ahrefs’ SEO Toolbar, you’ll find links to these tools in the “Structured data” tab.

Structured data showing JSON-LD schema, via Ahrefs' SEO Toolbar

If you click through to the Rich Results Test, it’ll run a test and list any errors. You can click on the test result to get more details about that issue.

Google's Rich Results Test tool

Google’s Rich Results Test tool is useful to validate schema on a page-by-page basis where Google’s rich results can appear. But if you want to check the status of all your rich results, you’ll need to use Google Search Console. 

Here’s an example of me reviewing valid Review snippets for a small website using Google Search Console.

Valid items rich results, via Google Search Console

Although this is useful, the problem with both the Rich Results Test tool and Google Search Console is that they only check schema markup that powers rich results, which is not the only benefit of schema markup.

If you want to check all the schema on your website, you’ll need to use’s Markup Validator for single pages. You can access this tool through Ahrefs’ SEO Toolbar by clicking on the “Validate” button.

Ahrefs' SEO Toolbar validation showing Schema Markup Validator

And for a total website check, you can use Ahrefs’ Site Audit, which you can access for free by signing up for Ahrefs Webmaster Tools (AWT)

Once you’ve run your audit, head over to the All issues report in Site Audit. If there are any structured data issues, you’ll see a message like the one below in the list of issues.

Structured data has validation error message in All issues report, via Ahrefs' Site Audit

Clicking on this issue will show all instances of structured data issues on your website. There are 1,332 results in this example. I like to prioritize fixes for pages by sorting “Organic traffic” from high to low. 

To do this, click on the “Organic traffic” header, and then click on “View issues” in the “Structured data issues” column to get more detail about the issue.

Structured data issues report, via Ahrefs' Site Audit
Structured data report, via Ahrefs' Site Audit

We can see in this particular example there are three errors and one warning. We’ll need to fix these issues first and then recheck them. 

Rather than instantly running another crawl straight away, it’s a good idea to use the SEO Toolbar to spot-check your changes.

Your rich results won’t show until Google has recrawled your site, which can take a few days—and even then, there’s no guarantee they’ll show in Google’s search results. 


If you want to speed things up for your most important pages, you can submit your URL for reindexing using Google Search Console.

If you’ve done everything above and are still having trouble, there may be a site quality issue. 

Here are some of the most common reasons your structured data may not show:

  • It’s misleading and doesn’t represent the main content of the page.
  • Google may think a text result is best for your content.
  • The page doesn’t meet Google’s structured data guidelines.

Final thoughts

Schema markup is a great way for you to claim more SERP real estate and improve your website’s CTR. 

It takes a bit of work to set it up. But with many CMSes making it easy to add schema to your site in a few clicks, it’s not as difficult as it used to be. 

Got more questions? Ping me on Twitter.

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GPT Store Set To Launch In 2024 After ‘Unexpected’ Delays




GPT Store Set To Launch In 2024 After 'Unexpected' Delays

OpenAI shares its plans for the GPT Store, enhancements to GPT Builder tools, privacy improvements, and updates coming to ChatGPT.

  • OpenAI has scheduled the launch of the GPT Store for early next year, aligning with its ongoing commitment to developing advanced AI technologies.
  • The GPT Builder tools have received substantial updates, including a more intuitive configuration interface and improved file handling capabilities.
  • Anticipation builds for upcoming updates to ChatGPT, highlighting OpenAI’s responsiveness to community feedback and dedication to AI innovation.

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96.55% of Content Gets No Traffic From Google. Here’s How to Be in the Other 3.45% [New Research for 2023]



96.55% of Content Gets No Traffic From Google. Here's How to Be in the Other 3.45% [New Research for 2023]

It’s no secret that the web is growing by millions, if not billions of pages per day.

Our Content Explorer tool discovers 10 million new pages every 24 hours while being very picky about the pages that qualify for inclusion. The “main” Ahrefs web crawler crawls that number of pages every two minutes. 

But how much of this content gets organic traffic from Google?

To find out, we took the entire database from our Content Explorer tool (around 14 billion pages) and studied how many pages get traffic from organic search and why.

How many web pages get organic search traffic?

96.55% of all pages in our index get zero traffic from Google, and 1.94% get between one and ten monthly visits.

Distribution of pages by traffic from Content Explorer

Before we move on to discussing why the vast majority of pages never get any search traffic from Google (and how to avoid being one of them), it’s important to address two discrepancies with the studied data:

  1. ~14 billion pages may seem like a huge number, but it’s not the most accurate representation of the entire web. Even compared to the size of Site Explorer’s index of 340.8 billion pages, our sample size for this study is quite small and somewhat biased towards the “quality side of the web.”
  2. Our search traffic numbers are estimates. Even though our database of ~651 million keywords in Site Explorer (where our estimates come from) is arguably the largest database of its kind, it doesn’t contain every possible thing people search for in Google. There’s a chance that some of these pages get search traffic from super long-tail keywords that are not popular enough to make it into our database.

That said, these two “inaccuracies” don’t change much in the grand scheme of things: the vast majority of published pages never rank in Google and never get any search traffic. 

But why is this, and how can you be a part of the minority that gets organic search traffic from Google?

Well, there are hundreds of SEO issues that may prevent your pages from ranking well in Google. But if we focus only on the most common scenarios, assuming the page is indexed, there are only three of them.

Reason 1: The topic has no search demand

If nobody is searching for your topic, you won’t get any search traffic—even if you rank #1.

For example, I recently Googled “pull sitemap into google sheets” and clicked the top-ranking page (which solved my problem in seconds, by the way). But if you plug that URL into Ahrefs’ Site Explorer, you’ll see that it gets zero estimated organic search traffic:

The top-ranking page for this topic gets no traffic because there's no search demandThe top-ranking page for this topic gets no traffic because there's no search demand

This is because hardly anyone else is searching for this, as data from Keywords Explorer confirms:

Keyword data from Ahrefs' Keywords Explorer confirms that this topic has no search demandKeyword data from Ahrefs' Keywords Explorer confirms that this topic has no search demand

This is why it’s so important to do keyword research. You can’t just assume that people are searching for whatever you want to talk about. You need to check the data.

Our Traffic Potential (TP) metric in Keywords Explorer can help with this. It estimates how much organic search traffic the current top-ranking page for a keyword gets from all the queries it ranks for. This is a good indicator of the total search demand for a topic.

You’ll see this metric for every keyword in Keywords Explorer, and you can even filter for keywords that meet your minimum criteria (e.g., 500+ monthly traffic potential): 

Filtering for keywords with Traffic Potential (TP) in Ahrefs' Keywords ExplorerFiltering for keywords with Traffic Potential (TP) in Ahrefs' Keywords Explorer

Reason 2: The page has no backlinks

Backlinks are one of Google’s top three ranking factors, so it probably comes as no surprise that there’s a clear correlation between the number of websites linking to a page and its traffic.

Pages with more referring domains get more trafficPages with more referring domains get more traffic
Pages with more referring domains get more traffic

Same goes for the correlation between a page’s traffic and keyword rankings:

Pages with more referring domains rank for more keywordsPages with more referring domains rank for more keywords
Pages with more referring domains rank for more keywords

Does any of this data prove that backlinks help you rank higher in Google?

No, because correlation does not imply causation. However, most SEO professionals will tell you that it’s almost impossible to rank on the first page for competitive keywords without backlinks—an observation that aligns with the data above.

The key word there is “competitive.” Plenty of pages get organic traffic while having no backlinks…

Pages with more referring domains get more trafficPages with more referring domains get more traffic
How much traffic pages with no backlinks get

… but from what I can tell, almost all of them are about low-competition topics.

For example, this lyrics page for a Neil Young song gets an estimated 162 monthly visits with no backlinks: 

Example of a page with traffic but no backlinks, via Ahrefs' Content ExplorerExample of a page with traffic but no backlinks, via Ahrefs' Content Explorer

But if we check the keywords it ranks for, they almost all have Keyword Difficulty (KD) scores in the single figures:

Some of the low-difficulty keywords a page without traffic ranks forSome of the low-difficulty keywords a page without traffic ranks for

It’s the same story for this page selling upholstered headboards:

Some of the low-difficulty keywords a page without traffic ranks forSome of the low-difficulty keywords a page without traffic ranks for

You might have noticed two other things about these pages:

  • Neither of them get that much traffic. This is pretty typical. Our index contains ~20 million pages with no referring domains, yet only 2,997 of them get more than 1K search visits per month. That’s roughly 1 in every 6,671 pages with no backlinks.
  • Both of the sites they’re on have high Domain Rating (DR) scores. This metric shows the relative strength of a website’s backlink profile. Stronger sites like these have more PageRank that they can pass to pages with internal links to help them rank. 

Bottom line? If you want your pages to get search traffic, you really only have two options:

  1. Target uncompetitive topics that you can rank for with few or no backlinks.
  2. Target competitive topics and build backlinks to rank.

If you want to find uncompetitive topics, try this:

  1. Enter a topic into Keywords Explorer
  2. Go to the Matching terms report
  3. Set the Keyword Difficulty (KD) filter to max. 20
  4. Set the Lowest DR filter to your site’s DR (this will show you keywords with at least one of the same or lower DR ranking in the top 5)
Filtering for low-competition keywords in Ahrefs' Keywords ExplorerFiltering for low-competition keywords in Ahrefs' Keywords Explorer

(Remember to keep an eye on the TP column to make sure they have traffic potential.)

To rank for more competitive topics, you’ll need to earn or build high-quality backlinks to your page. If you’re not sure how to do that, start with the guides below. Keep in mind that it’ll be practically impossible to get links unless your content adds something to the conversation. 

Reason 3. The page doesn’t match search intent

Google wants to give users the most relevant results for a query. That’s why the top organic results for “best yoga mat” are blog posts with recommendations, not product pages. 

It's obviously what searchers want when they search for "best yoga mats"It's obviously what searchers want when they search for "best yoga mats"

Basically, Google knows that searchers are in research mode, not buying mode.

It’s also why this page selling yoga mats doesn’t show up, despite it having backlinks from more than six times more websites than any of the top-ranking pages:

Page selling yoga mats that has lots of backlinksPage selling yoga mats that has lots of backlinks
Number of linking websites to the top-ranking pages for "best yoga mats"Number of linking websites to the top-ranking pages for "best yoga mats"

Luckily, the page ranks for thousands of other more relevant keywords and gets tens of thousands of monthly organic visits. So it’s not such a big deal that it doesn’t rank for “best yoga mats.”

Number of keyword rankings for the page selling yoga matsNumber of keyword rankings for the page selling yoga mats

However, if you have pages with lots of backlinks but no organic traffic—and they already target a keyword with traffic potential—another quick SEO win is to re-optimize them for search intent.

We did this in 2018 with our free backlink checker.

It was originally nothing but a boring landing page explaining the benefits of our product and offering a 7-day trial: 

Original landing page for our free backlink checkerOriginal landing page for our free backlink checker

After analyzing search intent, we soon realized the issue:

People weren’t looking for a landing page, but rather a free tool they could use right away. 

So, in September 2018, we created a free tool and published it under the same URL. It ranked #1 pretty much overnight, and has remained there ever since. 

Our rankings over time for the keyword "backlink checker." You can see when we changed the pageOur rankings over time for the keyword "backlink checker." You can see when we changed the page

Organic traffic went through the roof, too. From ~14K monthly organic visits pre-optimization to almost ~200K today. 

Estimated search traffic over time to our free backlink checkerEstimated search traffic over time to our free backlink checker


96.55% of pages get no organic traffic. 

Keep your pages in the other 3.45% by building backlinks, choosing topics with organic traffic potential, and matching search intent.

Ping me on Twitter if you have any questions. 🙂

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Firefox URL Tracking Removal – Is This A Trend To Watch?




Firefox URL Tracking Removal - Is This A Trend To Watch?

Firefox recently announced that they are offering users a choice on whether or not to include tracking information from copied URLs, which comes on the on the heels of iOS 17 blocking user tracking via URLs. The momentum of removing tracking information from URLs appears to be gaining speed. Where is this all going and should marketers be concerned?

Is it possible that blocking URL tracking parameters in the name of privacy will become a trend industrywide?

Firefox Announcement

Firefox recently announced that beginning in the Firefox Browser version 120.0, users will be able to select whether or not they want URLs that they copied to contain tracking parameters.

When users select a link to copy and click to raise the contextual menu for it, Firefox is now giving users a choice as to whether to copy the URL with or without the URL tracking parameters that might be attached to the URL.

Screenshot Of Firefox 120 Contextual Menu

Screenshot of Firefox functionality

According to the Firefox 120 announcement:

“Firefox supports a new “Copy Link Without Site Tracking” feature in the context menu which ensures that copied links no longer contain tracking information.”

Browser Trends For Privacy

All browsers, including Google’s Chrome and Chrome variants, are adding new features that make it harder for websites to track users online through referrer information embedded in a URL when a user clicks from one site and leaves through that click to visit another site.

This trend for privacy has been ongoing for many years but it became more noticeable in 2020 when Chrome made changes to how referrer information was sent when users click links to visit other sites. Firefox and Safari followed with similar referrer behavior.

Whether the current Firefox implementation would be disruptive or if the impact is overblown is kind of besides the point.

What is the point is whether or not what Firefox and Apple did to protect privacy is a trend and if that trend will extend to more blocking of URL parameters that are stronger than what Firefox recently implemented.

I asked Kenny Hyder, CEO of online marketing agency Pixel Main, what his thoughts are about the potential disruptive aspect of what Firefox is doing and whether it’s a trend.

Kenny answered:

“It’s not disruptive from Firefox alone, which only has a 3% market share. If other popular browsers follow suit it could begin to be disruptive to a limited degree, but easily solved from a marketers prospective.

If it became more intrusive and they blocked UTM tags, it would take awhile for them all to catch on if you were to circumvent UTM tags by simply tagging things in a series of sub-directories.. ie.<tag1>/<tag2> etc.

Also, most savvy marketers are already integrating future proof workarounds for these exact scenarios.

A lot can be done with pixel based integrations rather than cookie based or UTM tracking. When set up properly they can actually provide better and more accurate tracking and attribution. Hence the name of my agency, Pixel Main.”

I think most marketers are aware that privacy is the trend. The good ones have already taken steps to keep it from becoming a problem while still respecting user privacy.”

Some URL Parameters Are Already Affected

For those who are on the periphery of what’s going on with browsers and privacy, it may come as a surprise that some tracking parameters are already affected by actions meant to protect user privacy.

Jonathan Cairo, Lead Solutions Engineer at Elevar shared that there is already a limited amount of tracking related information stripped from URLs.

But he also explained that there are limits to how much information can be stripped from URLs because the resulting negative effects would cause important web browsing functionality to fail.

Jonathan explained:

“So far, we’re seeing a selective trend where some URL parameters, like ‘fbclid’ in Safari’s private browsing, are disappearing, while others, such as TikTok’s ‘ttclid’, remain.

UTM parameters are expected to stay since they focus on user segmentation rather than individual tracking, provided they are used as intended.

The idea of completely removing all URL parameters seems improbable, as it would disrupt key functionalities on numerous websites, including banking services and search capabilities.

Such a drastic move could lead users to switch to alternative browsers.

On the other hand, if only some parameters are eliminated, there’s the possibility of marketers exploiting the remaining ones for tracking purposes.

This raises the question of whether companies like Apple will take it upon themselves to prevent such use.

Regardless, even in a scenario where all parameters are lost, there are still alternative ways to convey click IDs and UTM information to websites.”

Brad Redding of Elevar agreed about the disruptive effect from going too far with removing URL tracking information:

“There is still too much basic internet functionality that relies on query parameters, such as logging in, password resets, etc, which are effectively the same as URL parameters in a full URL path.

So we believe the privacy crackdown is going to continue on known trackers by blocking their tracking scripts, cookies generated from them, and their ability to monitor user’s activity through the browser.

As this grows, the reliance on brands to own their first party data collection and bring consent preferences down to a user-level (vs session based) will be critical so they can backfill gaps in conversion data to their advertising partners outside of the browser or device.”

The Future Of Tracking, Privacy And What Marketers Should Expect

Elevar raises good points about how far browsers can go in terms of how much blocking they can do. Their response that it’s down to brands to own their first party data collection and other strategies to accomplish analytics without compromising user privacy.

Given all the laws governing privacy and Internet tracking that have been enacted around the world it looks like privacy will continue to be a trend.

However, at this point it time, the advice is to keep monitoring how far browsers are going but there is no expectation that things will get out of hand.

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