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Research Exposes Role of Pricing on User Ratings

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effect of price on ratings 5ff570c715020

A new study from the Harvard Business School proposes that price increases may have a negative effect on consumer ratings. This effect is seen in both high end and lower end of the market. This suggests that price can affect consumer perception of reputation on consumer rating platforms.

About the Study

A caveat to this study is that it’s a working paper. That means it is currently in draft form and not finalized. Nevertheless, the findings add to our understanding of pricing strategy and creating a positive reputation with consumers.

This research was conducted on restaurants on the Yelp Transactions Platform in the cities of New York City, Los Angeles, and Houston. They also used data from 2013 through January 2019.

Price and Ratings Effect is Across the Board

The researchers discovered that the average star ratings for high end restaurants were similar to the average ratings of low end restaurants. High end restaurants received an average score of 3.6 while restaurants at the cheapest levels received an average score of 3.4.

One would normally thing that high end restaurants would receive higher ratings in general than cheaper restaurants because of the perception of higher quality. But that doesn’t seem to be the case.

The researchers suggest:

“We interpret this as suggestive evidence that ratings area function of both quality and price.”

That means that a cheaper restaurant that has a four star rating isn’t necessarily better than a high end restaurant with a three star rating.

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The rating is a reflection of the perceived quality for the price paid.

The Takeaway:

What this may mean to businesses is that there may be a relationship between the perception of value a customer receives for the price paid and that the value will be reflected in higher ratings if the ratio of value and price are favorable.

Price Increases May Affect Ratings

According to the research, it was discovered that price increases led to decreases in ratings.

This is how they described the effect:

“…we find that increases in prices lead to lower ratings. A 1% increase in price leads to a 0.05-0.14 decrease in rating on a scale of 1 to 3 (the scale used for delivery
purchases), which is approximately 2.5%-5% decrease for the average feedback.

This effect becomes increasingly important when considering that the average price change is about 3%-9%.”

The researchers stressed that the rating changes were not small changes but were significant to the point that they could have an effect on a businesses reputation.

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According to the research:

“These results are consistent with the cross-sectional evidence, and suggest that higher prices are in fact affecting a restaurant’s reputation, and that these effects are both statistically and economically significant.”

Why Ratings May Be Affected by Price

The research reviewed the data by splitting the consumer ratings between first-time buyers and longtime patrons.

What was discovered is that consumers who have not previously purchased from the restaurant tended to be affected by higher prices than consumers who had purchased there before.

This implied that new consumers who don’t already have an opinion will more likely factor the higher price as part of their rating than a return customer who has eaten there before.

An additional insight is that, because return customers don’t lower their ratings because of price increases, it could mean that lower ratings are not given as “punishment” for raising the prices, since the ratings aren’t affected to the same degree as the ratings of new customers.

The researchers wrote:

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“We argue that ratings are negatively affected by price-level because consumers adjust their feedback based on prices.

We find that the effect is larger and generally more statistically significant for users who are ordering from a restaurant for the first time relative to people who have ordered before.

This suggests that consumers indeed respond to price levels rather than use low ratings as punishment for raising prices.

This finding also supports the notion that prices are, to some extent, used as a reference point or a signal to set users expectations for quality, as users who have not previously ordered from that business are likely to have the least prior knowledge of quality.”

The Trap of High Prices and Low Ratings

For businesses, the researchers suggest that price increases can carry a negative effect. The increased price can impact sales volume and affect the business reputation through lower ratings.

For consumers, the researchers argue that this may cause a lower user experience since the company’s ratings may not accurately reflect their reputation with consumers, it may simply reflect their reputation with new consumers.

Or, the high ratings may reflect their historic popularity with customers that was gained at a lower price point.

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The researchers also suggest that this information might be useful for sites that display user generated ratings, that it may be useful to device a way to show different ratings based on whether they were given by a new or repeat customer.

Presumably the rating of a repeat customer might more accurately reflect the true reputation of a company.

Here’s what the research paper says:

“Our results suggest a trade-off to increasing prices—in addition to reducing immediate sales, price increases harm firm reputation.

…If consumers are unable to unpack the impact of historic prices on rating, then this puts a wedge between true quality and firm’s reputation.”

Trade-off of Introductory Prices and Long Term Ratings

The researchers warned that unscrupulous sellers might try to game their ratings by initially offering low prices.

Because consumers take price into consideration of the value they receive, the lower price will positively affect the ratings and result in better ratings and more sales which in turn feeds into additional higher ratings.

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The researchers feel that this low price/high ratings feedback loop could be negatively offset in the long run by lower ratings from offering the product at higher prices later on.

This is how they put it:

“…strategic sellers might be tempted to take advantage of misguided consumers by setting low introductory prices. Initial low prices can mechanically boost ratings and allow some firms to eventually take advantage of their good reputation by increasing sales and prices.

More generally, our results point to a trade-off —price increases don’t just reduce present demand, but can potentially harm future demand by decreasing firm reputation.

We expect this negative effect to attenuate as the number of reviews grows larger.”

Explanation are Elusive

The researchers stated that they discovered consistent cause and effect in ratings and price increases. But they admitted that they did not have the data to accurately to explain the role of expectations on ratings.

The research paper concluded:

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Lastly, in this setting the mechanism driving the adverse impact of prices on ratings is somewhat unclear.

…Unfortunately, we are unable to fully disentangle these to mechanisms in our setting. We believe that the effect is driven by a mixture of these two forces: On the one hand, we do find that repeating users are affected by price, which implies that deviations from expectations are not the sole mechanism driving the results.

On the other hand, new consumers seem to be more affected, so expectations seem to play some role.”

The research paper, which is a working paper, brings up some interesting information that may be useful to businesses that are considering a pricing strategy and are concerned about user ratings on platforms. This is of particular concern local type businesses but also has implications for businesses whose products are rated by users on sites like Amazon.

Citation

Download the Report: The Impact of Price on Firm Reputation (PDF)

Searchenginejournal.com

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We asked ChatGPT what will be Google (GOOG) stock price for 2030

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We asked ChatGPT what will be Google (GOOG) stock price for 2030

Investors who have invested in Alphabet Inc. (NASDAQ: GOOG) stock have reaped significant benefits from the company’s robust financial performance over the last five years. Google’s dominance in the online advertising market has been a key driver of the company’s consistent revenue growth and impressive profit margins.

In addition, Google has expanded its operations into related fields such as cloud computing and artificial intelligence. These areas show great promise as future growth drivers, making them increasingly attractive to investors. Notably, Alphabet’s stock price has been rising due to investor interest in the company’s recent initiatives in the fast-developing field of artificial intelligence (AI), adding generative AI features to Gmail and Google Docs.

However, when it comes to predicting the future pricing of a corporation like Google, there are many factors to consider. With this in mind, Finbold turned to the artificial intelligence tool ChatGPT to suggest a likely pricing range for GOOG stock by 2030. Although the tool was unable to give a definitive price range, it did note the following:

“Over the long term, Google has a track record of strong financial performance and has shown an ability to adapt to changing market conditions. As such, it’s reasonable to expect that Google’s stock price may continue to appreciate over time.”

GOOG stock price prediction

While attempting to estimate the price range of future transactions, it is essential to consider a variety of measures in addition to the AI chat tool, which includes deep learning algorithms and stock market experts.

Finbold collected forecasts provided by CoinPriceForecast, a finance prediction tool that utilizes machine self-learning technology, to anticipate Google stock price by the end of 2030 to compare with ChatGPT’s projection.

According to the most recent long-term estimate, which Finbold obtained on March 20, the price of Google will rise beyond $200 in 2030 and touch $247 by the end of the year, which would indicate a 141% gain from today to the end of the year.

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2030 GOOG price prediction: Source: CoinPriceForecast

Google has been assigned a recommendation of ‘strong buy’ by the majority of analysts working on Wall Street for a more near-term time frame. Significantly, 36 analysts of the 48 have recommended a “strong buy,” while seven people have advocated a “buy.” The remaining five analysts had given a ‘hold’ rating.

1679313229 737 We asked ChatGPT what will be Google GOOG stock price
Wall Street GOOG 12-month price prediction: Source: TradingView

The average price projection for Alphabet stock over the last three months has been $125.32; this objective represents a 22.31% upside from its current price. It’s interesting to note that the maximum price forecast for the next year is $160, representing a gain of 56.16% from the stock’s current price of $102.46.

While the outlook for Google stock may be positive, it’s important to keep in mind that some potential challenges and risks could impact its performance, including competition from ChatGPT itself, which could affect Google’s price.


Disclaimer: The content on this site should not be considered investment advice. Investing is speculative. When investing, your capital is at risk.

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This Apple Watch app brings ChatGPT to your wrist — here’s why you want it

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Apple Watch Series 8

ChatGPT feels like it is everywhere at the moment; the AI-powered tool is rapidly starting to feel like internet connected home devices where you are left wondering if your flower pot really needed Bluetooth. However, after hearing about a new Apple Watch app that brings ChatGPT to your favorite wrist computer, I’m actually convinced this one is worth checking out.

The new app is called watchGPT and as I tipped off already, it gives you access to ChatGPT from your Apple Watch. Now the $10,000 question (or more accurately the $3.99 question, as that is the one-time cost of the app) is why having ChatGPT on your wrist is remotely necessary, so let’s dive into what exactly the app can do.

What can watchGPT do?

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Discord goes all in with AI: chatbots, automods, whiteboards and more

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Discord goes all in with AI: chatbots, automods, whiteboards and more

AI is the future, at least over on Discord.

The messaging application originally made for gamers has become Gen Z’s favorite online hangout destination of choice, and now it’s rolling out a number of features powered by artificial intelligence.

In an announcement(Opens in a new tab) on Thursday, Discord shared what’s coming to the platform soon: an AI chatbot, an automated AI moderator, a conversation summarizer, an avatar remixer, and a whiteboard. Some of these features begin rolling out today, March 9. Others will launch in the coming weeks and months.

While AI has jumped into the mainstream thanks to the popularity of OpenAI’s ChatGPT chatbot, Discord has had an active AI community for quite a while now. According to the company, third-party AI apps already on the platform already have more than 30 million monthly users. Nearly 3 million servers on Discord have some AI element integrated into the community.

In fact, the biggest community on Discord is Midjourney, a text-to-image AI project which allows users to generate art from right within the server. Discord says Midjourney’s server has more than 13 million members.

So, with AI being such an integral part of Discord already, it seemed like only a matter of time before Discord itself started bringing AI directly into the platform.

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AutoMod AI
Credit: Discord

The first feature coming to some Discord servers as soon as today is AutoMod AI. Discord already has an AutoMod feature, which basically automatically moderates rooms for admins based on the rules of the server. Discord has now integrated OpenAI-powered AI into AutoMod, allowing it to search the server and contact moderators when it thinks rules are possibly being broken. According to Discord, AutoMod AI can also consider the context of a conversation so, for example, users don’t get penalized for posts that are misconstrued.

Clyde is a bot that Discord users may already be familiar with, and starting next week, Clyde is getting an AI upgrade. Currently, the Clyde bot provides information, such as server error messages, and also responds to timeout or ban requests from users and mods. However, that’s pretty much all Clyde was able to do. Until now.

Clyde chatbot

Clyde
Credit: Discord

Clyde will now be able to answer all sorts of questions from users, much like OpenAI’s ChatGPT chatbot. Users simply have to type “@Clyde” followed by their prompt. Clyde will be able to pull up information and also help find specific emojis or GIFs based on a user’s description.

Another AI feature coming to Discord next week is Conversation Summaries. Again, the name is fairly descriptive of what it does. With users all over the world, many Discord channels are always moving regardless of time of day. Conversation Summaries will allow users to catch up on what they missed on a Discover Server. The AI-powered feature will “bundle” chats into topics so users can easily read up on what they find most interesting.

Conversation Summaries

Conversation Summaries
Credit: Discord

Starting today, developers can start playing with Avatar Remix, an open-source Discord app that integrates AI art into the messaging app. Avatar Remix allows users to take a fellow user’s avatar and change it up “using the power of generative image models.” What does that mean? In the demo that Discord showed Mashable, a user was able to add a party hat or a mustache to a friend’s avatar by simply mentioning their username and describing what changes they’d like to make.

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Avatar Remix

Avatar Remix
Credit: Discord

The company is also launching an “AI incubator,” offering support for developers creating AI-powered apps on Discord.

Finally, Discord revealed a feature that’s coming soon that has long been requested by the Discord community: a whiteboard. But, of course, this won’t be just any collaborative whiteboard feature. It’s going to be AI-powered, allowing users to collaborate in generating AI art and more.

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