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How To Use Chrome UX Report To Improve Your Site Performance



How To Use Chrome UX Report To Improve Your Site Performance

Measuring success in website performance is a tricky task for small business owners.

It can be easy to apply the same approach that works when evaluating viability throughout a company.

Black and white, hard and fast numbers. Results.

The truth of website performance is more of a multilayered exploration of RUM (Real User Measurements) within the context of the web at large.

Looking at RUM such as performance, page load, and page views gives a detailed picture of hard data.

However, RUM data is only part of a bigger equation to measure a website’s impact and success.

The CrUX Of The Matter: The State Of The Web As Experienced By Real Users

To be truly informative and deliver actionable data, you must balance users’ experiences on your site within the scope of user experience across the internet.

Stepping back lets businesses understand their site’s performance and know where those metrics land within a vast array of parameters.

This is where the Chrome UX Report enters the fray.

Making Web Performance Data On A Broad Scale Accessible To The Masses

First established by Google in 2017, the Chrome UX Report is a publicly available dataset of real user measurements.

Also known as the CrUX report, it gathers website performance data for Chrome users from millions of websites.

If that data were only compiled, it would be an incredible – but difficult to utilize – resource. When paired with the right program, however, the data is transformed.

When put to use correctly, the CrUX Report transforms an immense collection of web performance data into a clear and accessible resource.

To better understand the data compiled in the CrUX Report and how best to utilize it, we need to step back.

It’s time to review Chrome’s Core Web Vitals.

Page Experience And User Experience Are A Direct Result Of The Health Of A Website

Google is always seeking innovative and cutting-edge ways to provide users with a smooth, crisp online experience.

A significant cornerstone of that effort is Google’s work empowering website owners to maximize their sites.

When website owners deliver user-friendly, beneficial sites effectively, everyone wins.

The only way to achieve success in an endeavor, though, is to know what the rules and standards are.

In May 2020, Google released a new set of metrics to help evaluate website performance as it impacted user experience.

These were its Core Web Vitals.

The goal was to clear away minor and arbitrary details muddying up the water.

To do so, Google narrowed down a website’s user experience score to three core measurements:

  • LCP (Largest Contentful Paint).
  • FID (First Input Delay).
  • CLS (Cumulative Layout Shift).

Core Web Vitals are anchored on the crucial role of page experience in the more extensive user experience.

How does Google define page experience?

For its purposes, page experience measures how users perceive their experience interacting with an individual web page.

Building off of that, they define CWV as:

“A set of real-world, user-centered metrics that quantify key aspects of the user experience. They measure dimensions of web usability such as load time, interactivity, and the stability of content as it loads.”

When merged, the three elements of Core Web Vitals – LCP, FID, and CLS – deliver powerful insight.

As a whole, CWV results provide a precise picture of a user’s page experience on an individual website.

This page experience ultimately defines their user experience as a whole when utilizing the Google search engine.

A year after the initial announcement, it was made permanent.

Google finalized the integration of the new metrics with the permanent inclusion of Core Web Vitals into its algorithm.

Core Web Vitals zero in on website speed, responsiveness, and visual stability. However, it should be noted that they are part of a vast picture.

The Google search algorithm is always evolving, a challenge that demands vigilance on the part of professional SEO operators.

There were once reportedly more than 200 ranking factors.

Nowadays, some are weighted far more heavily and studied throughout the industry.

These factors continue to evolve as Google adapts to new data and user behavior.

The best practice is to review its ranking factors on a year-to-year basis.

Breaking Down The Google Search Algorithm

Despite the blanket of lore that has covered it over the years, the Google search algorithm has a definitive foundation.

It is anchored by the company’s commitment to ensuring a smooth and efficient search experience for all users.

Google continuously molds its search algorithm year-round to best meet the present and future demands of the global population.

The Google search algorithm focuses on a litany of factors that perpetually fluctuates.

In response, the SEO industry has consistently honed in on the key elements to focus on every year.

Knowing where to prioritize your focus when designing your website empowers you to achieve an optimal presence in the rankings.

These can include, but are not limited to:

  • Core Web Vitals.
  • High-Quality Content.
  • On-Page Optimization.
  • User Engagement.
  • Link Building/Domain Authority.
  • Effective Keyword Strategy (Meta Title Tags).
  • Mobile-Friendliness.
    • Mobile versions given priority.
  • Search Intent.
  • Internal Links.
  • Video Search (including Clip Markup and Seek Markup).
  • HTTPS Site Security.
  • Featured Snippets.

A Deep Dive Into Core Web Vitals

It is great to understand the roles of page and user experience in forming the metrics that comprise CWV.

For those seeking to maximize the Chrome UX Report for the benefit of their companies, a comprehensive understanding is crucial. It is important to understand the roles of the individual elements of the CWV.


Largest Contentful Paint measures the loading performance of a page.

The LCP metric quantifies this by evaluating the amount of time it takes to load the largest piece of content (video, image, text block, etc.) from the moment a user requests the URL.

Google recommends that websites keep LCP under 2.5 seconds for 75% of their page loads.


First Input Delay measures the interactivity of a page.

More precisely, it is the time between an action to when a browser responds to that action.

From the moment a link, button, or other actionable element is clicked to the precise moment the page responds, transforming the webpage from static to interactive.

Google recommends that websites keep their FID under 100 milliseconds for 75% of page loads.


Cumulative Layout Shift measures every layout shift that occurs across a site.

It begins with zero (no shifting), increasing to a positive number (in correlation with the total amount of shifting).

Factors that result in shifting range from the appearance of buttons, images that force a text block to move, and dropdown banner ads.

Google recommends websites strive for a CLS score of 0.1 or less.

Boiled down to a central doctrine, one could argue simply: Speed wins.

In the context of the user experience, a website’s performance is integral; it is judged and measured with precision.

This is the crux of the SI (Speed Index) metric: How quickly the content of a page is visually displayed.

The speed of delivery and the performance of the information/content delivered have an extremely short window to win over users.

SI scores reward those pages that load a lot of data in the shortest amount of time, resulting in a better user experience.

Perception And The Unique Relationship Of LCP And CLS

Anyone who has ever interacted with a web page knows the pain of waiting for a website to load fully.

For seasoned internet veterans, the truly difficult memories rest in the dreaded dial-up era.

Those who survived those dark times could hear the America Online (AOL) internet connection sounds in their sleep.

America is experiencing the gradual rollout of 5G mobile networks and 5G wireless internet.

As a result, lightning-fast speed impacts every aspect of modern life; speed is the expectation.

When a visitor experiences significant lag time waiting for your website to load, this has severe consequences.

It negatively impacts their perception of your brand and often causes them to leave entirely.

In Google’s efforts to define page performance’s inner workings, the content load process carried significant influence.

LCP may sound intimidating, but it’s fairly straightforward.

At its core, it asks: How quickly is the most meaningful content of a web page loaded?

This content can include various elements, including images, image tags, video thumbnails, background images with CSS, and text.

LCP highlights the importance of user perception.

When does a web page first begin to matter to a visitor? When the most visible, meaningful element appears.

The gap between when a user first clicks to initiate a page and when they first see core content can feel like an eternity.

Given the immediate and critical nature of this first interaction, Google recommends an individual page’s content loads in 2.5 seconds or less.

Concentrated effort to minimize LCP allows visitors to see and experience a website faster!

And this is great.

It’s foundational to a quality user experience and rightly earns its place as one of the Core Web Vitals. But what then?

If the website that loads for the visitor is a frustrating interaction, the promise of that pristine LCP is negated.

Here, the user experience event measured as CLS makes itself known.

Similar to LCP, user perception is central to the importance of CLS.

CLS quantifies the perceived visual stability of a page, measuring how much a page unexpectedly shifts throughout the lifetime of the page.

The focus here is on the totality and extent of unexpected shifting a visitor experiences.

Regardless of how long a visitor spends on a page, they should expect a smooth experience without repetitive, jarring adjustments.

Whether it’s a brief snippet of news or an in-depth analysis that requires significant scrolling, the results should be the same.

Equally important, both websites deserve to be judged fairly, as well.

To ensure this, Google created a way to highlight key layout shifts, developing a unique system.

This system involved, among many factors, session windows, session gaps, and layout shift amounts.

The result of Google’s ongoing efforts is a metric that shines a much-needed light on what is a massive part of a visitor’s experience.

Image Optimization Is Central To LCP And CLS Strategies

Optimization efforts for LCP and CLS highlight the necessity of understanding and implementing Image Optimization.

When you review techniques that help improve results for either metric, a consistent pattern emerges.

To deliver a website with quality Core Web Vitals, owners must be purposeful in their approach.

They need to intentionally focus on managing the specific details of image and video files and the timing of their integration.

Largest Contentful Paint

  • Image optimization, including size, compression, format, and attributes.
  • Streamlined utilization of CSS and JavaScript
  • Optimal ratio of server-side and client-side rendering.
  • Top-shelf server response time.
Cumulative Layout Shift

  • Specify width + height attributes for images and videos.
  • Properly integrate content (i.e., ads and embeds) with effectively-timed JavaScript
  • Understand best practices to navigate web fonts.
  • Navigate page changes with expected layout shifts.

The Importance Of Image Optimization For LCP

Image optimization and compression are particularly important factors impacting LCP.

This is especially true for website owners unable to adjust their server response time.

Image optimization focuses on utilizing the most effective attributes for images.

This includes optimal size and resolution and capitalizing on cutting-edge file formats.

The latest and most effective image format is Google’s WebP, which delivers optimal lossless and lossy compression for web images.

WebP image compression plugins and manual pre-upload converters are often free and easy to use.

Width And Height Attributes Are Critical Factors In Preventing Cumulative Layout Shift

Few things are as aggravating as content shifting unexpectedly when a visitor attempts to read the information on a website.

It often seems that the browser is waiting for the perfect moment to strike, right when they’ve become engrossed.

Suddenly, a jarring shift occurs, and they are left to figure out where their spot shifted.

This experience will consistently and negatively impact a user’s experience, leading to increasingly difficult odds of retaining them.

Setting proper attributes is a simple but extremely effective step a website owner can take to prevent CLS.

By setting Width and Height attributes for images and videos, they preemptively restrict the browser to specific guidelines.

Without declared Width and Height dimensions, there is little instruction ensuring the visual content doesn’t cause havoc when loaded.

With responsive images, the impact of setting max-width with CSS is amplified.

This measure applies to ad images and videos, highlighting the importance of reserving sufficient space for ads in CSS.

Taking the time to constrain ad content effectively ensures it doesn’t shift a page that has already loaded.

Optimizing CWV Performance To Maximize The CrUX Report

Business leaders don’t just want their websites to perform at peak page proficiency. They want to ensure it will attract and effectively hold onto visitors.

It’s easier to turn off a potential site visitor than to find a debate raging somewhere on social media.

Today’s internet users are increasingly mobile-centric and expectant of lightning-fast speeds.

To not only survive in that world but to thrive, leaders need to understand Core Web Vitals.

They need to grasp the interlocking elements of Core Web Vitals and how they impact performance.

Once armed with that knowledge and understanding, leaders are equipped to maximize the benefits of the CrUX Report.

It’s easy to see the benefits of letting the CrUX Report speak into and guide best practices.

More resources:

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WP Rocket WordPress Plugin Now Optimizes LCP Core Web Vitals Metric




WP Rocket WordPress Plugin Now Optimizes LCP Core Web Vitals Metric

WP Rocket, the WordPress page speed performance plugin, just announced the release of a new version that will help publishers optimize for Largest Contentful Paint (LCP), an important Core Web Vitals metric.

Large Contentful Paint (LCP)

LCP is a page speed metric that’s designed to show how fast it takes for a user to perceive that the page is loaded and read to be interacted with. This metric measures the time it takes for the main content elements has fully loaded. This gives an idea of how usable a webpage is. The faster the LCP the better the user experience will be.

WP Rocket 3.16

WP Rocket is a caching plugin that helps a site perform faster. The way page caching generally works is that the website will store frequently accessed webpages and resources so that when someone visits the page the website doesn’t have to fetch the data from the database, which takes time, but instead will serve the webpage from the cache. This is super important when a website has a lot of site visitors because that can use a lot of server resources to fetch and build the same website over and over for every visitor.

The lastest version of WP Rocket (3.16) now contains Automatic LCP optimization, which means that it will optimize the on-page elements from the main content so that they are served first thereby raising the LCP scores and providing a better user experience.

Because it’s automatic there’s really nothing to fiddle around with or fine tune.

According to WP Rocket:

  • Automatic LCP Optimization: Optimizes the Largest Contentful Paint, a critical metric for website speed, automatically enhancing overall PageSpeed scores.
  • Smart Management of Above-the-Fold Images: Automatically detects and prioritizes critical above-the-fold images, loading them immediately to improve user experience and performance metrics.

All new functionalities operate seamlessly in the background, requiring no direct intervention from the user. Upon installing or upgrading to WP Rocket 3.16, these optimizations are automatically enabled, though customization options remain accessible for those who prefer manual control.”

Read the official announcement:

WP Rocket 3.16: Improving LCP and PageSpeed Score Automatically

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Optimizing Interaction To Next Paint: A Step-By-Step Guide




Optimizing Interaction To Next Paint: A Step-By-Step Guide

This post was sponsored by DebugBear. The opinions expressed in this article are the sponsor’s own.

Keeping your website fast is important for user experience and SEO.

The Core Web Vitals initiative by Google provides a set of metrics to help you understand the performance of your website.

The three Core Web Vitals metrics are:

This post focuses on the recently introduced INP metric and what you can do to improve it.

How Is Interaction To Next Paint Measured?

INP measures how quickly your website responds to user interactions – for example, a click on a button. More specifically, INP measures the time in milliseconds between the user input and when the browser has finished processing the interaction and is ready to display any visual updates on the page.

Your website needs to complete this process in under 200 milliseconds to get a “Good” score. Values over half a second are considered “Poor”. A poor score in a Core Web Vitals metric can negatively impact your search engine rankings.

Google collects INP data from real visitors on your website as part of the Chrome User Experience Report (CrUX). This CrUX data is what ultimately impacts rankings.

Image created by DebugBear, May 2024

How To Identify & Fix Slow INP Times

The factors causing poor Interaction to Next Paint can often be complex and hard to figure out. Follow this step-by-step guide to understand slow interactions on your website and find potential optimizations.

1. How To Identify A Page With Slow INP Times

Different pages on your website will have different Core Web Vitals scores. So you need to identify a slow page and then investigate what’s causing it to be slow.

Using Google Search Console

One easy way to check your INP scores is using the Core Web Vitals section in Google Search Console, which reports data based on the Google CrUX data we’ve discussed before.

By default, page URLs are grouped into URL groups that cover many different pages. Be careful here – not all pages might have the problem that Google is reporting. Instead, click on each URL group to see if URL-specific data is available for some pages and then focus on those.

1716368164 358 Optimizing Interaction To Next Paint A Step By Step GuideScreenshot of Google Search Console, May 2024

Using A Real-User Monitoring (RUM) Service

Google won’t report Core Web Vitals data for every page on your website, and it only provides the raw measurements without any details to help you understand and fix the issues. To get that you can use a real-user monitoring tool like DebugBear.

Real-user monitoring works by installing an analytics snippet on your website that measures how fast your website is for your visitors. Once that’s set up you’ll have access to an Interaction to Next Paint dashboard like this:

1716368164 404 Optimizing Interaction To Next Paint A Step By Step GuideScreenshot of the DebugBear Interaction to Next Paint dashboard, May 2024

You can identify pages you want to optimize in the list, hover over the URL, and click the funnel icon to look at data for that specific page only.

1716368164 975 Optimizing Interaction To Next Paint A Step By Step GuideImage created by DebugBear, May 2024

2. Figure Out What Element Interactions Are Slow

Different visitors on the same page will have different experiences. A lot of that depends on how they interact with the page: if they click on a background image there’s no risk of the page suddenly freezing, but if they click on a button that starts some heavy processing then that’s more likely. And users in that second scenario will experience much higher INP.

To help with that, RUM data provides a breakdown of what page elements users interacted with and how big the interaction delays were.

1716368164 348 Optimizing Interaction To Next Paint A Step By Step GuideScreenshot of the DebugBear INP Elements view, May 2024

The screenshot above shows different INP interactions sorted by how frequent these user interactions are. To make optimizations as easy as possible you’ll want to focus on a slow interaction that affects many users.

In DebugBear, you can click on the page element to add it to your filters and continue your investigation.

3. Identify What INP Component Contributes The Most To Slow Interactions

INP delays can be broken down into three different components:

  • Input Delay: Background code that blocks the interaction from being processed.
  • Processing Time: The time spent directly handling the interaction.
  • Presentation Delay: Displaying the visual updates to the screen.

You should focus on which INP component is the biggest contributor to the slow INP time, and ensure you keep that in mind during your investigation.

1716368164 193 Optimizing Interaction To Next Paint A Step By Step GuideScreenshot of the DebugBear INP Components, May 2024

In this scenario, Processing Time is the biggest contributor to the slow INP time for the set of pages you’re looking at, but you need to dig deeper to understand why.

High processing time indicates that there is code intercepting the user interaction and running slow performing code. If instead you saw a high input delay, that suggests that there are background tasks blocking the interaction from being processed, for example due to third-party scripts.

4. Check Which Scripts Are Contributing To Slow INP

Sometimes browsers report specific scripts that are contributing to a slow interaction. Your website likely contains both first-party and third-party scripts, both of which can contribute to slow INP times.

A RUM tool like DebugBear can collect and surface this data. The main thing you want to look at is whether you mostly see your own website code or code from third parties.

1716368164 369 Optimizing Interaction To Next Paint A Step By Step GuideScreenshot of the INP Primary Script Domain Grouping in DebugBear, May 2024

Tip: When you see a script, or source code function marked as “N/A”, this can indicate that the script comes from a different origin and has additional security restrictions that prevent RUM tools from capturing more detailed information.

This now begins to tell a story: it appears that analytics/third-party scripts are the biggest contributors to the slow INP times.

5. Identify Why Those Scripts Are Running

At this point, you now have a strong suspicion that most of the INP delay, at least on the pages and elements you’re looking at, is due to third-party scripts. But how can you tell whether those are general tracking scripts or if they actually have a role in handling the interaction?

DebugBear offers a breakdown that helps see why the code is running, called the INP Primary Script Invoker breakdown. That’s a bit of a mouthful – multiple different scripts can be involved in slowing down an interaction, and here you just see the biggest contributor. The “Invoker” is just a value that the browser reports about what caused this code to run.

1716368165 263 Optimizing Interaction To Next Paint A Step By Step GuideScreenshot of the INP Primary Script Invoker Grouping in DebugBear, May 2024

The following invoker names are examples of page-wide event handlers:

  • onclick
  • onmousedown
  • onpointerup

You can see those a lot in the screenshot above, which tells you that the analytics script is tracking clicks anywhere on the page.

In contrast, if you saw invoker names like these that would indicate event handlers for a specific element on the page:

  • .load_more.onclick
  • #logo.onclick

6. Review Specific Page Views

A lot of the data you’ve seen so far is aggregated. It’s now time to look at the individual INP events, to form a definitive conclusion about what’s causing slow INP in this example.

Real user monitoring tools like DebugBear generally offer a way to review specific user experiences. For example, you can see what browser they used, how big their screen is, and what element led to the slowest interaction.

1716368165 545 Optimizing Interaction To Next Paint A Step By Step GuideScreenshot of a Page View in DebugBear Real User Monitoring, May 2024

As mentioned before, multiple scripts can contribute to overall slow INP. The INP Scripts section shows you the scripts that were run during the INP interaction:

1716368165 981 Optimizing Interaction To Next Paint A Step By Step GuideScreenshot of the DebugBear INP script breakdown, May 2024

You can review each of these scripts in more detail to understand why they run and what’s causing them to take longer to finish.

7. Use The DevTools Profiler For More Information

Real user monitoring tools have access to a lot of data, but for performance and security reasons they can access nowhere near all the available data. That’s why it’s a good idea to also use Chrome DevTools to measure your page performance.

To debug INP in DevTools you can measure how the browser processes one of the slow interactions you’ve identified before. DevTools then shows you exactly how the browser is spending its time handling the interaction.

1716368165 526 Optimizing Interaction To Next Paint A Step By Step GuideScreenshot of a performance profile in Chrome DevTools, May 2024

How You Might Resolve This Issue

In this example, you or your development team could resolve this issue by:

  • Working with the third-party script provider to optimize their script.
  • Removing the script if it is not essential to the website, or finding an alternative provider.
  • Adjusting how your own code interacts with the script

How To Investigate High Input Delay

In the previous example most of the INP time was spent running code in response to the interaction. But often the browser is already busy running other code when a user interaction happens. When investigating the INP components you’ll then see a high input delay value.

This can happen for various reasons, for example:

  • The user interacted with the website while it was still loading.
  • A scheduled task is running on the page, for example an ongoing animation.
  • The page is loading and rendering new content.

To understand what’s happening, you can review the invoker name and the INP scripts section of individual user experiences.

1716368165 86 Optimizing Interaction To Next Paint A Step By Step GuideScreenshot of the INP Component breakdown within DebugBear, May 2024

In this screenshot, you can see that a timer is running code that coincides with the start of a user interaction.

The script can be opened to reveal the exact code that is run:

1716368165 114 Optimizing Interaction To Next Paint A Step By Step GuideScreenshot of INP script details in DebugBear, May 2024

The source code shown in the previous screenshot comes from a third-party user tracking script that is running on the page.

At this stage, you and your development team can continue with the INP workflow presented earlier in this article. For example, debugging with browser DevTools or contacting the third-party provider for support.

How To Investigate High Presentation Delay

Presentation delay tends to be more difficult to debug than input delay or processing time. Often it’s caused by browser behavior rather than a specific script. But as before, you still start by identifying a specific page and a specific interaction.

You can see an example interaction with high presentation delay here:

1716368165 665 Optimizing Interaction To Next Paint A Step By Step GuideScreenshot of the an interaction with high presentation delay, May 2024

You see that this happens when the user enters text into a form field. In this example, many visitors pasted large amounts of text that the browser had to process.

Here the fix was to delay the processing, show a “Waiting…” message to the user, and then complete the processing later on. You can see how the INP score improves from May 3:

1716368165 845 Optimizing Interaction To Next Paint A Step By Step GuideScreenshot of an Interaction to Next Paint timeline in DebugBear, May 2024

Get The Data You Need To Improve Interaction To Next Paint

Setting up real user monitoring helps you understand how users experience your website and what you can do to improve it. Try DebugBear now by signing up for a free 14-day trial.

1716368165 494 Optimizing Interaction To Next Paint A Step By Step GuideScreenshot of the DebugBear Core Web Vitals dashboard, May 2024

Google’s CrUX data is aggregated over a 28-day period, which means that it’ll take a while before you notice a regression. With real-user monitoring you can see the impact of website changes right away and get alerted automatically when there’s a big change.

DebugBear monitors lab data, CrUX data, and real user data. That way you have all the data you need to optimize your Core Web Vitals in one place.

This article has been sponsored by DebugBear, and the views presented herein represent the sponsor’s perspective.

Ready to start optimizing your website? Sign up for DebugBear and get the data you need to deliver great user experiences.

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International SEO For 2024: 9-Point Checklist For Success




International SEO For 2024: 9-Point Checklist For Success

Getting your international SEO strategy right can be an elusive feat.

There are a lot more factors at play than people give credit for, and it’s often a thankless job.

A successful international SEO strategy requires a deep knowledge of your company’s commercial strategy as well as technical SEO knowledge, cultural sensitivity, and excellent data skills.

Yet the industry often regards international SEO as just your hreflang setup.

In this article, I will distill the complexities of international SEO success into an actionable step-by-step list that will take you from beginner to advanced practitioner. Let’s begin!

Part I: Be Commercially Aware

1. Understand Why Your Company Is Going International

Companies can grow by expanding their products and services, focusing on gaining market penetration or expanding into new markets.

While your team’s goal might be traffic, leads, or revenue, the leadership team is likely working under a different set of parameters. Most of the time, leadership’s ultimate goal is to maximize shareholder value.

  • In founder-owned companies, growth goals might be slower and more sustainable, usually aimed at maintaining and growing profitability.
  • VC-owned companies have high growth goals because they must provide their investors with a return that’s higher than the stock market. This is what is known as the alpha, or your company’s ability to beat the market in growth.
  • Publicly traded companies are likely aiming to grow their share value.
  • Startups, depending on their maturity stage, are likely looking to prove product-market fit or expand their reach fast to show that their operations are scalable and have the potential to be profitable in the future. The goal of this is to aid in raising further capital from investors.

Understanding why businesses go international is essential for informing your SEO decisions. What’s best practice for SEO isn’t always what’s best for business.

You must adapt your strategy to your company’s growth model.

  • Companies choosing to grow sustainably and maintain profitability will likely expand more slowly to a market that resembles their core market.
  • VC-owned companies will be able to invest in a wider range of countries, with a smaller concern for providing their users with an experience on par with that of their core markets.
  • Startups can try to beat their competitors to market by expanding quickly and throwing a lot of money at the project, or they might be concerned with cash flow and try to expand fast but cut corners by using automatic translation.

2. Stack Rank Your Target Markets To Prioritize Your Investment

I promise I’ll get to hreflang implementation soon, but so much about international SEO has to do with commercial awareness – so bear with me; this will make you a better professional.

Many companies have different market tiers to reflect how much of a priority each market is. Market prioritization can happen using many different metrics, such as:

  • Average order value or lifetime customer value.
  • Amount of investment required.
  • Market size.
  • And market similarity.

American companies often prioritize developed English-speaking countries such as the UK, Canada, or Australia. These are most similar to their core market, and most of their market knowledge will be transferable.

After that, companies are likely to target large European economies, such as Germany and France. They might also target the LatAm market and Spain in the same effort.

The last prioritization tier can vary widely among companies, with a focus on the Nordic, Brazilian, or Asian markets.

Part II: Know Your Tech

3. Define Your International URL Structure

When doing international SEO, there are 4 different possible URL structures, each with its pros and cons.

ccTLD Structure

A ccTLD structure is set up to target different countries based on the domain type.

This structure is not ideal for companies that target different languages rather than different countries. For example, a .es website is targeting Spain, not the Spanish language.

An advantage to this kind of structure is that the ccTLD sends a very strong localization signal to search engines as to what market they are targeting, and they can lead to improved trust and CTR in your core country.

On the other hand, ccTLDs can dilute your site’s authority, as links will be spread across domains rather than concentrated on the .com.

gTLD With Subdirectories

This is my personal favorite when it comes to international SEO.

These URL structures can look like if they’re targeting languages or if they’re targeting countries.

This configuration aggregates the authority you gain across your different territories into a single domain, it’s cheaper to maintain, and the .com TLD is widely recognizable by users worldwide.

On the other hand, this setup can look less personalized to people outside the US, who might wonder if you can service their markets.

gTLD With Subdomains

This setup involves placing international content on a subdomain like While once popular, it’s slipping in favor because it doesn’t bring anything unique to the table anymore.

This setup offers a clear signal to users and search engines about the intended audience of a specific subdomain.

However, subdomains often face issues with SEO, as Google tends to view them as separate entities. This separation can dilute link, similar to the ccTLD approach but without the geo-targeting advantages.

gTLD With Parameters

This is the setup where you add parameters at the end of the URL to indicate the language of the page, such as

I strongly advise against this setup, as it can present multiple technical SEO challenges and trust issues.

4. Understand Your Hreflang Setup

In the words of John Mueller: hreflang can be one of the most complex aspects of SEO.

Screenshot from Twitter, May 2024

Hreflang reminds me of a multilingual form of a canonical tag, where we tell search engines that one document is a version of the other and explain the relationship between them.

I find hreflang implementation very interesting from a technical point of view. Because development teams mostly manage it, and it can be very much hit or miss.

Often, hreflang is constructed from existing fields in your content management system (CMS) or content database.

You might find that your development team is pulling the HTML lang tag, which follows a different ISO standard than hreflang, leading to a broken implementation.

Other times, there is a field in your CMS that your development team pulls from to build your hreflang setup.

Finding out how your hreflang tags are generated can be extremely helpful in identifying the sources of different issues or mitigating potential risks.

So speak to your engineering team and ask them how you’re currently generating hreflang.

5. Implement Hreflang Without Errors

There are three ways to implement hreflang on your site:

  • On your sitemap.
  • Through your HTTP header.
  • On your HTML head.

The method most of us are most familiar with is the HTML head. And while you can use more than one method, they should match each other perfectly. Otherwise, you risk confusing search engines.

Here are some basic rules for getting it done correctly:

  • In your hreflang implementation, the URL must include domain and protocol.
  • You must follow the ISO 639-1 language codes – don’t go around making up your own.
  • Hreflang tags must be reciprocal. If the page you’re listing as a language alternative does not list you back, your implementation won’t work.
  • Audit your hreflang regularly. My favorite tool for this, since it added the hreflang cluster analysis and link graphs, is Ahrefs. For the record, Ahrefs is not paying me to say this; it’s a genuine recommendation and has helped me a lot in my work.
  • You should only have one page per language.
  • Your hreflang URLs should be self-canonicalizing and respond with a 200 code.

Follow the above rules, and you’ll avoid the most common hreflang mistakes that SEO pros make.

And if you’re interested in the technical SEO aspect beyond hreflang, I recommend reading Mind your language by Rob Owen.

Part III: Invest In Content Incrementally

6. Translate Your Top-performing Content Topics

Now that you have the basic commercial and technical knowledge covered, you’re ready to start creating a content strategy.

You likely have a wealth of content in your core market that can be recycled. But you want to focus on translating high-converting topics, not just any topic; otherwise, you might be wasting your budget!

Let’s go step by step.

Cluster Your Website’s Content By Topic

  • Crawl your site using your favorite SEO tool and extract the URL and H1.
  • Use ChatGPT to classify that list of URLs into topics. You might already know what you usually write about, so include those topics in your prompt. You don’t want to have a classification that’s too granular, so you can prompt chatGPT to only create groups with a minimum of 10 URLs (adjust this to reflect the size of your website) and class everything else as other. This is an example of what your prompt might look like: “I will provide you with a list of article titles and their corresponding URL. Classify this list into the following topics: survey best practices, research and analysis, employee surveys, market research and others. Return this in a table format with the URL, title and group name.”
  • Start a spreadsheet with all your URLs in the first column, titles in the second column, and the group they belong to in the third column.

Measure Your Performance By Topic

  • Export your GSC data and use a =VLOOKUP formula to match your clicks to your URLs.
  • Export your conversion data and use a =VLOOKUP formula to match your conversions (leads, sales, sign-ups, or revenue) to the right URL.
  • You can then copy your topics column onto a new sheet. Remove duplicates and use the =SUMIF formula to aggregate your click data and conversion data by topic.

Choose What Topics You’ll Be Translating First

Using this data, you can now choose what topics are most likely to drive conversions based on your core market data. Choose how many topics or pieces of content you’ll be translating based on your budget.

Personally, I like translating one topic at a time because I’ve found that generating topical authority on one specific topic makes it easier for me to rank on an adjacent topic that I write about next.

7. Localize Your English Content

Once you’re set up with all your key pages and a few content topics, it’s time to evaluate your investment and see where you could be getting a bigger return.

At this stage, many companies have translated their content into a few different languages and likely copied the US content into their UK and Australian sites. Now that you’ve done some translation, it’s time to work on localization.

If you’ve just copied your US content into your UK and Australian sites, your Google Search Console indexing report might be screaming at you, “Duplicate, Google selected a different canonical than the user.”

A very easy fix that could yield great returns is to localize your English content to the nuances of those English-speaking markets.

You will want to instruct your translation and localization providers to adapt the spellings of certain words, change the choice of words, introduce local expressions, and update any cited statistic for the US with their local equivalent.

For example, if I’m targeting a British audience, “analyze” becomes “analyse,” a “stroller” becomes a “pram,” and “soccer” becomes “football.”

8. Invest In In-market Content

Once you’ve got the basics in place, you can start tackling the specific needs of other markets. This strategy is expensive, and you should only use it in your priority markets, but it can really set you apart from your competitors.

For this, you will need to work with a local linguist to identify pain points, use cases, or needs exclusive to your target market.

For example, if France suddenly made it mandatory to run a diversity and inclusion study for companies with over 250 employees, I’d want to know this and create some content on DEI surveys at SurveyMonkey.

9. Integrate With Other Content Workflows

In step six, we evaluated our top-performing content, chose the best articles to translate, and got it all down. But wait. Some of these source articles have been updated. And there is even more content now!

To run a successful international SEO campaign you must integrate with all the other teams publishing content within your organization.

Usually, the teams creating content in an organization are SEO, content, PR, product marketing, demand generation, customer marketing, customer service, customer education, or solutions engineering.

That’s a lot, and you won’t be able to integrate with everyone all at once. Prioritize the teams that create the most revenue-generating content, such as SEO, content, or product marketing.

Working with these teams, you will have to establish a process for what happens when they create a new piece, update some content, or remove an existing piece.

These processes can differ for everyone, but I can tell you what I do with my team and hope it inspires you.

  • When a piece of content that’s already been localized into international markets is updated, we get the content in a queue to be re-localized the next quarter.
  • When they create a new piece of content, we evaluate its performance, and if it’s performing above average, we add it to a localization queue for the next quarter.
  • When they change the URL of a piece of content or delete it, all international sites must follow suit at the same time, since due to some technical limitations, not making the change globally would create some hreflang issues.

Wrapping Up

International SEO is vast and complex, and no article can cover it all, but many interesting resources have been created by SEO pros across the community for those who want to learn more.

Navigating the complexities of international SEO is no small feat. It’s an intricate dance of aligning commercial strategies with technical precision, cultural insights, and data-driven decisions.

From understanding your company’s core motives for global expansion to meticulously implementing hreflang tags and localizing content, every step plays a crucial role in building a successful international presence.

More resources: 

Featured Image: BritCats Studio/Shutterstock

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