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Google LIMoE – A Step Towards Goal Of A Single AI

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Google LIMoE - A Step Towards Goal Of A Single AI

Google announced a new technology called LIMoE that it says represents a step toward reaching Google’s goal of an AI architecture called Pathways.

Pathways is an AI architecture that is a single model that can learn to do multiple tasks that are currently accomplished by employing multiple algorithms.

LIMoE is an acronym that stands for Learning Multiple Modalities with One Sparse Mixture-of-Experts Model. It’s a model that processes vision and text together.

While there are other architectures that to do similar things, the breakthrough is in the way the new model accomplishes these tasks, using a neural network technique called a Sparse Model.

The sparse model is described in a research paper from 2017 that introduced the Mixture-of-Experts layer (MoE) approach, in a research paper titled, Outrageously Large Neural Networks: The Sparsely-Gated Mixture-of-Experts Layer.

In 2021 Google announced a MoE model called GLaM: Efficient Scaling of Language Models with Mixture-of-Experts that was trained just on text.

The difference with LIMoE is that it works on text and images simultaneously.

The sparse model is different from the the “dense” models in that instead of devoting every part of the model to accomplishing a task, the sparse model assigns the task to various “experts” that specialize in a part of the task.

What this does is to lower the computational cost, making the model more efficient.

So, similar to how a brain sees a dog and know it’s a dog, that it’s a pug and that the pug displays a silver fawn color coat, this model can also view an image and accomplish the task in a similar way, by assigning computational tasks to different experts that specialize in the task of recognizing a dog, its breed, its color, etc.

The LIMoE model routes the problems to the “experts” specializing in a particular task, achieving similar or better results than current approaches to solving problems.

An interesting feature of the model is how some of the experts specialize mostly in processing images, others specialize mostly in processing text and some experts specialize in doing both.

Google’s description of how LIMoE works shows how there’s an expert on eyes, another for wheels, an expert for striped textures, solid textures, words, door handles, food & fruits, sea & sky, and an expert for plant images.

The announcement about the new algorithm describes these experts:

“There are also some clear qualitative patterns among the image experts — e.g., in most LIMoE models, there is an expert that processes all image patches that contain text. …one expert processes fauna and greenery, and another processes human hands.”

Experts that specialize in different parts of the problems provide the ability to scale and to accurately accomplish many different tasks but at a lower computational cost.

The research paper summarizes their findings:

  • “We propose LIMoE, the first large-scale multimodal mixture of experts models.
  • We demonstrate in detail how prior approaches to regularising mixture of experts models fall short for multimodal learning, and propose a new entropy-based regularisation scheme to stabilise training.
  • We show that LIMoE generalises across architecture scales, with relative improvements in zero-shot ImageNet accuracy ranging from 7% to 13% over equivalent dense models.
  • Scaled further, LIMoE-H/14 achieves 84.1% zeroshot ImageNet accuracy, comparable to SOTA contrastive models with per-modality backbones and pre-training.”

Matches State of the Art

There are many research papers published every month. But only a few are highlighted by Google.

Typically Google spotlights research because it accomplishes something new, in addition to attaining a state of the art.

LIMoE accomplishes this feat of attaining comparable results to today’s best algorithms but does it more efficiently.

The researchers highlight this advantage:

“On zero-shot image classification, LIMoE outperforms both comparable dense multimodal models and two-tower approaches.

The largest LIMoE achieves 84.1% zero-shot ImageNet accuracy, comparable to more expensive state-of-the-art models.

Sparsity enables LIMoE to scale up gracefully and learn to handle very different inputs, addressing the tension between being a jack-of-all-trades generalist and a master-of-one specialist.”

The successful outcomes of LIMoE led the researchers to observe that LIMoE could be a way forward for achieving a multimodal generalist model.

The researchers observed:

“We believe the ability to build a generalist model with specialist components, which can decide how different modalities or tasks should interact, will be key to creating truly multimodal multitask models which excel at everything they do.

LIMoE is a promising first step in that direction.”

Potential Shortcomings, Biases & Other Ethical Problems

There are shortcomings to this architecture that are not discussed in Google’s announcement but are mentioned in the research paper itself.

The research paper notes that, similar to other large-scale models, LIMoE may also introduce biases into the results.

The researchers state that they have not yet “explicitly” addressed the problems inherent in large scale models.

They write:

“The potential harms of large scale models…, contrastive models… and web-scale multimodal data… also carry over here, as LIMoE does not explicitly address them.”

The above statement makes a reference (in a footnote link) to a 2021 research paper called, On the Opportunities and Risks of Foundation Models (PDF here).

That research paper from 2021 warns how emergent AI technologies can cause negative societal impact such as:

“…inequity, misuse, economic and environmental impact, legal and ethical considerations.”

According to the cited paper, ethical problems can also arise from the tendency toward the homogenization of tasks, which can then introduce a point of failure that is then reproduced to other tasks that follow downstream.

The cautionary research paper states:

“The significance of foundation models can be summarized with two words: emergence and homogenization.

Emergence means that the behavior of a system is implicitly induced rather than explicitly constructed; it is both the source of scientific excitement and anxiety about unanticipated consequences.

Homogenization indicates the consolidation of methodologies for building machine learning systems across a wide range of applications; it provides strong leverage towards many tasks but also creates single points of failure.”

One area of caution is in vision related AI.

The 2021 paper states that the ubiquity of cameras means that any advances in AI related to vision could carry a concomitant risk toward the technology being applied in an unanticipated manner which can have a “disruptive impact,” including with regard to privacy and surveillance.

Another cautionary warning related to advances in vision related AI is problems with accuracy and bias.

They note:

“There is a well-documented history of learned bias in computer vision models, resulting in lower accuracies and correlated errors for underrepresented groups, with consequently inappropriate and premature deployment to some real-world settings.”

The rest of the paper documents how AI technologies can learn existing biases and perpetuate inequities.

“Foundation models have the potential to yield inequitable outcomes: the treatment of people that is unjust, especially due to unequal distribution along lines that compound historical discrimination…. Like any AI system, foundation models can compound existing inequities by producing unfair outcomes, entrenching systems of power, and disproportionately distributing negative consequences of technology to those already marginalized…”

The LIMoE researchers noted that this particular model may be able to work around some of the biases against underrepresented groups because of the nature of how the experts specialize in certain things.

These kinds of negative outcomes are not theories, they are realities and have already negatively impacted lives in real-world applications such as unfair racial-based biases introduced by employment recruitment algorithms.

The authors of the LIMoE paper acknowledge those potential shortcomings in a short paragraph that serves as a cautionary caveat.

But they also note that there may be a potential to address some of the biases with this new approach.

They wrote:

“…the ability to scale models with experts that can specialize deeply may result in better performance on underrepresented groups.”

Lastly, a key attribute of this new technology that should be noted is that there is no explicit use stated for it.

It’s simply a technology that can process images and text in an efficient manner.

How it can be applied, if it ever is applied in this form or a future form, is never addressed.

And that’s an important factor that is raised by the cautionary paper (Opportunities and Risks of Foundation Models), calls attention to in that researchers create capabilities for AI without consideration for how they can be used and the impact they may have on issues like privacy and security.

“Foundation models are intermediary assets with no specified purpose before they are adapted; understanding their harms requires reasoning about both their properties and the role they play in building task-specific models.”

All of those caveats are left out of Google’s announcement article but are referenced in the PDF version of the research paper itself.

Pathways AI Architecture & LIMoE

Text, images, audio data are referred to as modalities, different kinds of data or task specialization, so to speak. Modalities can also mean spoken language and symbols.

So when you see the phrase “multimodal” or “modalities” in scientific articles and research papers, what they’re generally talking about is different kinds of data.

Google’s ultimate goal for AI is what it calls the Pathways Next-Generation AI Architecture.

Pathways represents a move away from machine learning models that do one thing really well (thus requiring thousands of them) to a single model that does everything really well.

Pathways (and LIMoE) is a multimodal approach to solving problems.

It’s described like this:

“People rely on multiple senses to perceive the world. That’s very different from how contemporary AI systems digest information.

Most of today’s models process just one modality of information at a time. They can take in text, or images or speech — but typically not all three at once.

Pathways could enable multimodal models that encompass vision, auditory, and language understanding simultaneously.”

What makes LIMoE important is that it is a multimodal architecture that is referred to by the researchers as an “…important step towards the Pathways vision…

The researchers describe LIMoE a “step” because there is more work to be done, which includes exploring how this approach can work with modalities beyond just images and text.

This research paper and the accompanying summary article shows what direction Google’s AI research is going and how it is getting there.


Citations

Read Google’s Summary Article About LIMoE

LIMoE: Learning Multiple Modalities with One Sparse Mixture-of-Experts Model

Download and Read the LIMoE Research Paper

Multimodal Contrastive Learning with LIMoE: the Language-Image Mixture of Experts (PDF)

Image by Shutterstock/SvetaZi



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How to Get Search Traffic Without Ranking for Anything

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How to Get Search Traffic Without Ranking for Anything

Getting to the top of Google can be quite slow. Especially so for small, new websites. And the competition can often be too strong, which makes it quite unlikely for you to outrank your rivals in the first place.

Well… if you can’t win, change the rules.

There’s a very simple trick for getting search traffic for the keywords that you want to rank for—without actually ranking for them.

Enter…

One of the most common pieces of marketing advice is to “go fish where the fish are.” Whatever product or service you want to sell, you have to follow three simple steps:

  1. Figure out who your ideal customers are.
  2. Find the places where those people are hanging out online.
  3. Go to those places and find ways to promote your product.

Quick example: if you want to sell fitness gear, it would be good to figure out how to tap into the r/Fitness community on Reddit, which has over 12M members.

What does it have to do with SEO though?

Well, whatever search traffic you want to drive to your own website… someone is already getting it to theirs, right? And their website is not necessarily your direct competitor.

If you own a bagel joint in Singapore, you definitely want your website to rank in Google for “best bagels in Singapore.” But the pages that actually rank for this keyword are listicles, which give readers a bunch of different suggestions. So your job is to get featured in as many of those top-ranking listicles as possible.

Ranking for a keyword with your own website isn’t the only way to get customers from Google. Getting featured on other pages that rank for this keyword is incredibly effective too.

I call this tactic “second-hand search traffic”.

The underlying idea is not new though.

You might have heard of the concept called “Barnacle SEO,” shared by Rand Fishkin back in 2014. There’s also a concept called “Surround Sound,” coined by Alex Birkett. And another one called “SERP Monopoly strategy” by Nick Eubanks. There’s also a reverse concept, called “Rank & Rent.”

The idea behind all of these tactics is practically the same: if a page gets a lot of relevant search traffic from Google—you have to try and get your business mentioned there.

1721330765 614 How to Get Search Traffic Without Ranking for Anything1721330765 614 How to Get Search Traffic Without Ranking for Anything
Source

But that’s easier said than done, right?

Why would anyone bother to feature your business on their website?

Well, one simple answer is money.

If a website owner can make money from mentioning your business on their page, there’s a good chance they’ll do it. This money could come in the form of an affiliate commission or a flat fee for an annual or permanent placement. Sometimes these things can also happen as part of a broader partnership deal.

Getting listed for free is very, very hard. Especially so if you’re not already a big and respected business that people naturally want to feature on their website.

And yet—it’s not completely impossible to get listed for free.

Case in point, we just published our own “best SEO conferences” post, in order to rank for relevant search queries and promote our upcoming event, Ahrefs Evolve Singapore.

And then we went ahead and reached out to all websites that rank for the “best SEO conferences” keyword and asked them to add Ahrefs Evolve to their listicles. So far 10 out of 17 featured us on their pages, without asking for any payment whatsoever.

1721330766 734 How to Get Search Traffic Without Ranking for Anything1721330766 734 How to Get Search Traffic Without Ranking for Anything

The most straightforward way to execute this strategy is to compile a list of highly relevant keywords (with high business potential scores), pull all the top-ranking pages for each of them into a spreadsheet, and start your outreach.

But there’s one other fruitful source of pages to get second-hand search traffic from. These are pages that are linking to your competitors, while getting a decent amount of search traffic themselves.

Here’s how to find these pages in 3 simple steps:

  1. Put the website of your competitor in Ahrefs’ Site Explorer.
  2. Navigate to the Backlinks report.
  3. Apply the “Referring page > Traffic” filter.
How to Get Search Traffic Without Ranking for AnythingHow to Get Search Traffic Without Ranking for Anything

Here’s an example of a page I found while trying this out for the ConvertKit website:

1721330766 665 How to Get Search Traffic Without Ranking for Anything1721330766 665 How to Get Search Traffic Without Ranking for Anything

As you can see, this page is not about “email marketing” (the primary topic you’d go for, if you wanted to promote an email marketing tool). And yet, this page is receiving 2.6k visitors per month from Google (as estimated by Ahrefs), and it recommends a bunch of email marketing tools to its readers.

So if you own an email marketing tool—like ConvertKit—you definitely want to get mentioned on that page alongside your competitors.

The moral of this story is that you should look outside of the topics that are immediately relevant to your business. Any page that gets traffic and mentions a competitor of yours should become your target.

And Ahrefs makes it super easy to find such pages.

That’s it.

I hope you found this tactic useful. Don’t sleep on it, because there’s a good chance that your competitors won’t.

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What SEO Should Know About Brand Marketing With Mordy Oberstein

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What SEO Should Know About Brand Marketing With Mordy Oberstein

For the SEO industry, the Google documents leak offered an important view behind the scenes. Although the leak was not a blueprint of how the algorithm worked, there was considerable confirmation that SEO professionals were right about many elements of the algorithm.

From all the analysis and discussion following the leak, the one insight that got my attention was how important the brand is.

Rand Fishkin, who broke the leak, said this:

“Brand matters more than anything else … If there was one universal piece of advice I had for marketers seeking to broadly improve their organic search rankings and traffic, it would be: “Build a notable, popular, well-recognized brand in your space, outside of Google search.”

Mike King echoed this statement with the following observation:

“All these potential demotions can inform a strategy, but it boils down to making stellar content with strong user experience and building a brand, if we’re being honest.”

Mordy Oberstein, who is an advocate for building a brand online, posted on X (Twitter):

“I am SO happy that the SEO conversation has shifted to thinking about “brand.”

It’s not the first time that “brand” has been mentioned in SEO. We began to talk about this around 2012 after the impact of Panda and Penguin when it first became apparent that Google’s aim was to put more emphasis on brand.

Compounding this is the introduction of AI, which has accelerated the importance of taking a more holistic approach to online marketing with less reliance on Google SERPs.

When I spoke to Pedro Dias, he said, “We need to focus more than ever on building our own communities with users aligned to our brands.”

As someone who had 15 years of offline experience in marketing, design, and business before moving into SEO, I have always said that having this wide knowledge allows me to take a holistic view of SEO. So, I welcome the mindset shift towards building a brand online.

As part of his X/Twitter post, Mordy also said:

“I am SO happy that the SEO conversation has shifted to thinking about “brand” (a lot of which is the direct result of @randfish’s & @iPullRank’s great advice following the “Google leaks”).

As someone who has straddled the brand marketing and SEO world for the better part of 10 years – branding is A LOT harder than many SEOs would think and will be a HUGE adjustment for many SEOs.”

Following his X/Twitter post, I reached out to Mordy Oberstein, Head of SEO Brand at Wix, to have a conversation about branding and SEO.

What Do SEO Pros Need To Know About ‘Brand’ To Make The Mindset Shift?

I asked Mordy, “In your opinion, what does brand and building a brand mean, and can SEO pros make this mindset shift?”

Mordy responded, “Brand building basically means creating a connection between one entity and another entity, meaning the company and the audience.

It’s two people meeting, and that convergence is the building of a brand. It’s very much a relationship. And I think that’s what makes it hard for SEOs. It’s a different way of thinking; it’s not linear, and there aren’t always metrics that you can measure it by.

I’m not saying you don’t use data, or you don’t have data, but it’s harder to measure to tell a full story.

You’re trying to pick up on latent signals. A lot of the conversation is unconscious.

It’s all about the micro things that compound. So, you have to think about everything you do, every signal, to ensure that it is aligned with the brand.

For example, a website writes about ‘what is a tax return.’ However, if I’m a professional accountant and I see this on your blog, I might think this isn’t relevant to me because you’re sending me a signal that you’re very basic. I don’t need to know what a tax return is; I have a master’s degree in accounting.

The latent signals that you’re sending can be very subtle, but this is where it is a mindset shift for SEO.”

I recalled a recent conversation with Pedro Dias in which he stressed it was important to put your users front and center and create content that is relevant to them. Targeting high-volume keywords is not going to connect with your audience. Instead, think about what is going to engage, interest, and entertain them.

I went on to say that for some time, the discussion online has been about SEO pros shifting away from the keyword-first approach. However, the consequences of moving away from a focus on traffic and clicks will mean we are likely to experience a temporary decline in performance.

How Does An SEO Professional Sell This To Stakeholders – How Do They Measure Success?

I asked Mordy, “How do you justify this approach to stakeholders – how do they measure success?”

Mordy replied, “I think selling SEO will become harder over time. But, if you don’t consider the brand aspect, then you could be missing the point of what is happening. It’s not about accepting lower volumes of traffic; it’s that traffic will be more targeted.

You might see less traffic right now, but the idea is to gain a digital presence and create digital momentum that will result in more qualified traffic in the long term.”

Mordy went on to say, “It’s going to be a habit to break out of, just like when you have to go on a diet for a long-term health gain.

The ecosystem will change, and it will force change to our approach. SEOs may not have paid attention to the Google leak documents, but I think they will pay attention as the entire ecosystem shifts – they won’t have a choice.

I also think C-level will send a message that they don’t care about overall traffic numbers, but do care about whether a user appreciates what they are producing and that the brand is differentiated in some way.”

How Might The Industry Segment And What Will Be The Important Roles?

I interjected to make the point that it does look a lot like SEO is finally making that shift across marketing.

Technical SEO will always be important, and paid/programmatic will remain important because it is directly attributable.

For the rest of SEO, I anticipate it merges across brand, SEO, and content into a hybrid strategy role that will straddle those disciplines.

What we thought of as “traditional SEO” will fall away, and SEO will become absorbed into marketing.

In response, Mordy agreed and thought that SEO traffic is part of a wider scope or part of a wider paradigm, and it will sit under brand and communications.

An SEO pro that functions as part of the wider marketing and thinks about how we are driving revenue, how we are driving growth, what kind of growth we are driving, and using SEO as a vehicle to that.

The final point I raised was about social media and whether that would become a more combined facet of SEO and overall online marketing.

Mordy likened Google to a moth attracted to the biggest digital light.

He said, “Social media is a huge vehicle for building momentum and the required digital presence.

For example, the more active I am on social media, the more organic branded searches I gain through Google Search. I can see the correlation between that.

I don’t think that Google is ignoring branded searches, and it makes a semantic connection.”

SEO Will Shift To Include Brand And Marketing

The conversation I had with Mordy raised an interesting perspective that SEO will have to make significant shifts to a brand and marketing mindset.

The full impact of AI on Google SERPs and how the industry might change is yet to be realized. But, I strongly recommend that anyone in SEO consider how they can start to take a brand-first approach to their strategy and the content they create.

I suggest building and measuring relationships with audiences based on how they connect with your brand and moving away from any strategy based on chasing high-volume keywords.

Think about what the user will do once you get the click – that is where the real value lies.

Get ahead of the changes that are coming.

Thank you to Mordy Oberstein for offering his opinion and being my guest on IMHO.

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Featured Image: 3rdtimeluckystudio/Shutterstock

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4 Ways PPC and SEO Can Work Together (And When They Can’t)

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4 Ways PPC and SEO Can Work Together (And When They Can’t)

Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of optimizing your pages to rank in a search engine’s organic results.

Pay-per-click (PPC) is a form of online advertising where advertisers pay a fee each time someone clicks their ad.

There’s no conundrum between the two types of marketing. You don’t have to choose one or the other; the best companies use both.

Here’s how they can work together and produce magic:

Creating SEO content is the process of figuring out what your target audience is searching on Google and aligning your content to their search intent.

To start off, you need to find out what they’re searching for. The easiest way is to use a keyword research tool, like Ahrefs’ Keywords Explorer.

Here’s how you might find keywords for a hypothetical coffee equipment store:

  1. Go to Ahrefs’ Keywords Explorer
  2. Enter a relevant keyword (e.g., “coffee”)
  3. Go to Matching terms

Go through the list and pick out keywords that are relevant to the site. For example, the keyword “how to grind coffee beans” seems like a good keyword to target.

The keyword "how to grind coffee beans" and relevant SEO statsThe keyword "how to grind coffee beans" and relevant SEO stats

Once we’ve chosen our keyword, we want to know what searchers are looking for specifically. Sometimes the keyword gives us an idea, but to be sure, we can look at the top-ranking pages.

So, click the SERP button and then click Identify intents to see what searchers are looking for:

The Identify Intents feature in Ahrefs' Keywords ExplorerThe Identify Intents feature in Ahrefs' Keywords Explorer

We can see that searchers are looking for techniques and methods to grind coffee beans at home, and especially without a grinder. If we want to rank high, we’ll likely have to follow suit.

Those are the basics of creating SEO content. But doing just this isn’t enough. After all, the quote goes, “if a tree falls in a forest and no one hears it, does it make a sound?”

This applies to your content too. You don’t want to create into a void; you want people to see and consume your content. This is where PPC comes in. You can run PPC ads to ensure that as many people see your content as possible.

For example, at Ahrefs, we run Facebook ads for our content:

An example of a Facebook Ad we ran for our contentAn example of a Facebook Ad we ran for our content

We also run ads on Quora:

Our Quora ads campaigns we ran for the blogOur Quora ads campaigns we ran for the blog

This way, we make sure that none of our content efforts go to waste.

Links are an important Google ranking factor. Generally speaking, the more links your page has, the more likely it’ll rank high in the search results.

But acquiring links is hard. This is why it’s still a reliable ranking factor. And it’s also why there’s an entire industry behind link building, and tons of tactics you can use, all with varying levels of success.

One way you can consider building links to your pages is to run PPC ads. In fact, we ran an experiment a few years ago to prove that it was possible.

We spent ~$1,245 on Google search ads and acquired a total of 16 backlinks to two different pieces of content. (~$77-78 per backlink.) This is much cheaper than if you had to buy a backlink, which according to our study, costs around $361.44.

(It would be even more expensive if you acquired links via outreach, as you would have to consider additional costs like software, manpower, etc.)

Retargeting allows you to target visitors who have left your website.

Here’s how retargeting works:

  1. A visitor discovers your article on Google
  2. Your ad management software sets a cookie on the visitor’s browser, which allows you to show ads to these visitors
  3. When the visitor leaves your website and surfs the web, you can show ads and persuade them to return to your website

Depending on where they are on the buyer’s journey, you can convince them to take the next step.

buyer's journeybuyer's journey

For example, if someone found your website via your article on the “best espresso machines”, it’s likely they’re looking to buy. So, you can set your retargeting ad to encourage them to visit your espresso machines category page.

On the other hand, if a visitor discovered your website from your “what is a coffee grinder” article, they might still be early on the journey. In that case, it might be prudent to encourage them to sign up for your email list instead.

Every site has important keywords. For example, besides our brand and product terms, critical keywords are “keyword research”, “link building”, and “technical SEO”.

Since these keywords are important, it makes sense to dominate the SERPs for them. You can do this by simultaneously running ads for them while ranking in organic search. For example, Wix ranks for the keyword “create website for free” in both paid and organic SERPs:

Wix ranks for the keyword “create website for free” in both paid and organic SERPsWix ranks for the keyword “create website for free” in both paid and organic SERPs

This is especially useful if you’re a new or smaller site. The keywords that are important to you are likely important to your competitors too. Which means you can’t compete with them overnight.

So, a good strategy is to target those keywords via PPC first, while investing in your SEO strategy. Over time, as you acquire more backlinks and gain more website authority, you’ll be able to compete with your competitors in organic search too.

While both channels are complementary, there are times where it may make more sense to choose one over the other.

When to choose PPC

If you fit these scenarios, it might be a better idea to go for PPC:

  • You’re promoting a limited-time offer, event, or launching a product. According to our poll, SEO takes three to six months to show results. If your event, offer, or launch is shorter than the expected timeframe, it’ll be over even before SEO takes any effect.
  • You need immediate, short-term results. If you need to show some results now, then PPC will be a better choice.
  • You have a disruptive product or service. SEO depends on figuring out what people are already searching for. If your product or service is completely novel, then it’s likely no one is searching for it.
  • Hyper-competitive SERPs. Some niches have competing sites with large SEO teams and deep pockets. Coupled with Google’s preference for known brands, if you’re in these niches, it can be difficult to compete. PPC offers a viable alternative for gaining visibility on the first page.

When to choose SEO

Here are times when it may make better sense to choose SEO:

  • Keywords are too expensive. Some industries, like insurance or finance, have cost-per-clicks (CPC) up to a few hundred dollars. For example, the keyword “direct auto insurance san antonio” has a CPC of $275.
  • Your niche is restricted. Certain industries or niches (e.g., adult, weapons, gambling, etc.) are prohibited or restricted from advertising.
  • You have a limited budget. PPC requires money to begin, whereas SEO can drive traffic to your website at no direct cost per visitor.
  • You’re building an affiliate site. Affiliate sites earn a commission when people buy from their recommendations. While it’s not impossible to build an affiliate site from PPC, it’s difficult to control the return on investment (ROI) since affiliate site owners cannot control sales conversion rates.

Final thoughts

There are cases where focusing on either SEO or PPC makes sense.

But most of the time, the best companies don’t discriminate between channels. If they produce positive ROI, then you should be using all marketing channels.

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