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How to manage email addresses in a customer data platform



Why first-party data collection should be a priority for marketers

The main purpose of a customer data platform is to merge all your customer data into one place, where you can orchestrate online and offline campaigns based on customer attributes, transactions, or behavior. As a very simple example, you can find the people who frequent your pages about skiing and send them an email when you get a new ski-related product in stock. 

Such a campaign is only possible if you’ve been able to enrich the customer’s online profile with their email address. 

In other words, your prospect may have purchased something from you, so you have his information in your store, and he may also visit your website. Still, until you can merge those records, you can’t use his on-site behavior to send him appropriate messages. Knowing how to enrich an online profile with an email address is a study in itself and beyond the scope of this article, although I discuss it in some depth in this short video

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It’s nice to think that once you’ve attached an email address to an online profile, you can merge customer data on that email address, and voila, you have your single customer view. 

Nothing is that easy. Some of your customer data won’t have an email address, and people usually have several email addresses that change over time — due to changing jobs, mergers and acquisitions or simply from creating personal addresses on several different systems. 

This is where you need to make an important decision. The idealistic goal of a CDP is to merge all your customer data, but the reality is that might not be worth the trouble. It all depends on what you expect your CDP to do and think through that. You need to compare customer data scenarios with your use cases. 

The simple path is to make the email addresses unique. You have a separate record in your CDP for each email address. That means you might have multiple records per customer, which seems to contradict the whole point of a CDP — which is to have a single view of the customer — but that solution is perfectly okay for some use cases. 

To get into this a little deeper, it’s helpful to discuss the distinction between online and offline profiles. 

Let’s say I worked for CompanyX in 2020, and my email address at that time was [email protected] While at CompanyX, I attended one of your webinars, so you have a record for me in your customer database that includes that CompanyX email address. 

In 2021 I left CompanyX and started with CompanyA, where my email address changed to  [email protected]


In 2022, you invested in a CDP and imported all your webinar information, which created a profile for [email protected] (the out-of-date and now useless email address). That same year, I visited your site. Your CDP created a profile based on that visit — that is, it put a cookie on my web browser and started recording the interactions I had with your website – but it didn’t know who I was. When I downloaded your white paper using my current email address — [email protected] — I changed from unknown to known (hurray!), but you still don’t know that I attended one of your webinars because that account has me as [email protected] 

How are you going to get a single customer view? 

Even though the CDP has a profile for [email protected], who attended your webinar, that profile is essentially useless. The email address is defunct, and it doesn’t correspond to any active online profile, so you can’t target me as a webinar attendee on your website. If you create a segment of “people who attended webinars,” that profile will be included, but it won’t do you any good. It won’t be actionable. 

The example points out the limitations of merging profiles based on email addresses. You simply won’t get all the information you have on your customers into one record. 

As an alternative, let’s say the form to download the white paper included name and address. Now — assuming I used my home address, which stayed the same from 2020 to 2022 — you have the possibility of merging my CompanyX record with my CompanyA record. Now you can target me on the web as a webinar attendee.

The overall point is that you have to think through the many to one problem with email addresses. One person — Greg Krehbiel — has many different email addresses and potentially many different touch points with your company that are associated with those different email addresses. If you can’t merge those profiles into one record, you won’t have a complete view of your company’s connection with me. 

Does that matter? Maybe, maybe not. My actionable profile — the one where you have what I do on your website and my current email address — will not include the fact that I attended your webinar. 

Is that a big problem? It depends on how often you think it will happen and the consequences of getting something wrong. For example, it’s one thing to fail to include me in a list of “past webinar attendees,” but it’s another to include me in a list of “people who have never attended a webinar.” 

The challenge here is that you can go down quite a rabbit hole trying to solve every edge case and exception. The more you think about it, the easier it is to come up with ordinary events that will mess up your data. 

  • What if there’s a typo in an online form to collect an email address? 
  • What happens when a company changes the structure of its email address (e.g., from first initial, last name @ company dot com to first name dot last name @ company dot com)? 
  • When someone calls customer service and changes their email address, how will you deal with that when you re-import the data? 

You can drive yourself crazy thinking of how things can get messed up.

So what do you do? 

As mentioned above, the simplest thing is to have one email address per customer profile. But that means you’re giving up on the idea of a “single customer view.” If that’s okay — if you think through all your use cases, and it doesn’t matter too much — then go with that. 

Another option is to allow the email field to have multiple email addresses. The only downside to that approach is that email is no longer a unique identifier for your customer profiles. But you can always use something else. 

Here’s an exercise for you to figure this out. Come up with a list of scenarios where someone’s email might change or why they might have multiple emails:

  • Changed job. 
  • New personal email. 
  • Serious email and junk email.
  • IT guy at the company decided to change the format of the emails.
  • The company changed its name, etc.

With that list in one hand and your merge rules in the other, review all your use cases. In what situations will you fail to get a “single customer view”? How big of a problem does that pose to your overall strategy, and what do you hope to get out of your CDP? 

If you don’t think long and hard about how you intend to manage your customers’ email addresses, your CDP implementation is likely to disappoint you. The guidelines in this article should have put you on a path to uncovering the right solution for your unique requirements.

Opinions expressed in this article are those of the guest author and not necessarily MarTech. Staff authors are listed here.

About The Author


Greg’s decades-long career in B2B and B2C publishing has included lengthy gigs in editorial, marketing, product development, web development, management, and operations. He’s an expert at bridging the intellectual and cultural divide between technical and creative staff. Working as a consultant, Greg solves technology, strategy, operations, and process problems for publishers. His expertise includes Customer Data Platforms, acquisition and retention, e-commerce, RFPs, fulfillment, and project management. Learn more at

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8 major email marketing mistakes and how to avoid them



8 major email marketing mistakes and how to avoid them

As email marketers, we know we need to personalize the messages we send to subscribers and customers. I can’t think of a single statistic, case study or survey claiming an email program of one-to-everyone campaigns outperforms personalization.

Instead, you’ll find statistics like these:

  • 72% of customers will engage only with personalized messages (Wunderkind Audiences, formerly SmarterHQ)
  • 70% of consumers say that how well a company understands their individual needs affects their loyalty (Salesforce)
  • 71% of customers are frustrated by impersonal shopping experiences (Segment)

But what marketers often don’t understand, especially if they’re new to personalization, is that personalization is not an end in itself. Your objective is not to personalize your email campaigns and lifecycle messages. 

Rather, your objective is to enhance your customer’s experience with your brand. Personalization is one method that can do that, but it’s more than just another tactic. 

It is both an art and a science. The science is having the data and automations to create personalized, one-to-one messages at scale. The art is knowing when and how to use it.

We run into trouble when we think of personalization as the goal instead of the means to achieve a goal. In my work consulting with marketers for both business and consumer brands, I find this misunderstanding leads to eight major marketing mistakes – any of which can prevent you from realizing the immense benefits of personalization.

Mistake #1. Operating without an overall personalization strategy

I see this all too often: marketers find themselves overwhelmed by all the choices they face: 

  • Which personalization technologies to use
  • What to do with all the data they have
  • How to use their data and technology effectively
  • Whether their personalization efforts are paying off

This stems from jumping headfirst into personalization without thinking about how to use it to meet customers’ needs or help them solve problems. 

To avoid being overwhelmed with the mechanics of personalization, follow this three-step process:

  • Start small. If you aren’t using personalization now, don’t try to set up a full-fledged program right away. Instead, look for quick wins – small areas where you can use basic personalized data to begin creating one-to-one messages. That will get you into the swing of things quickly, without significant investment in time and money. Adding personal data to the body of an email is about as basic as you’ll get, but it can be a start.
  • Test each tactic. See whether that new tactic helps or hurts your work toward your goal. Does adding personal data to each message correlate with higher clicks to your landing page, more conversion or whatever success metric you have chosen?
  • Optimize and move on. Use your testing results to improve each tactic. Then, take what you learned to select and add another personalization tactic, such as adding a module of dynamic content to a broadcast (one to everyone) campaign. 

Mistake #2. Not using both overt and covert personalization

Up to now, you might have thought of in specific terms: personalized subject lines, data reflecting specific actions in the email copy, triggered messages that launch when a customer’s behavior matches your automation settings and other “overt” (or visible) personalization tactics.

“Covert” personalization also employs customer preference or behavior data but doesn’t draw attention to it. Instead of sending an abandoned-browse message that says “We noticed you were viewing this item on our website,” you could add a content module in your next campaign that features those browsed items as recommended purchases, without calling attention to their behavior. It’s a great tactic to use to avoid being seen as creepy.

Think back to my opening statement that personalization is both an art and a science. Here, the art of personalization is knowing when to use overt personalization – purchase and shipping confirmations come to mind – and when you want to take a more covert route. 

Mistake #3. Not maximizing lifecycle automations

Lifecycle automations such as onboarding/first-purchase programs, win-back and reactivation campaigns and other programs tied to the customer lifecycle are innately personalized. 

The copy will be highly personal and the timing spot-on because they are based on customer actions (opting in, purchases, downloads) or inactions (not opening emails, not buying for the first time or showing signs of lapsing after purchasing). 

Better yet, these emails launch automatically – you don’t have to create, schedule or send any of these emails because your marketing automation platform does that for you after you set it up. 

You squander these opportunities if you don’t do everything you can to understand your customer lifecycle and then create automated messaging that reaches out to your customers at these crucial points. This can cost you the customers you worked so hard to acquire, along with their revenue potential.

Mistake #4. Not testing effectively or for long-term gain

Testing helps you discover whether your personalization efforts are bearing fruit. But all too often, marketers test only individual elements of a specific campaign – subject lines, calls to action, images versus no images, personalization versus no personalization  – without looking at whether personalization enhances the customer experience in the long term.

How you measure success is a key part of this equation. The metrics you choose must line up with your objectives. That’s one reason I’ve warned marketers for years against relying on the open rate to measure campaign success. A 50% open rate might be fantastic, but if you didn’t make your goal for sales, revenue, downloads or other conversions, you can’t consider your campaign a success.


As the objective of personalizing is to enhance the customer journey, it makes sense then that customer lifetime value is a valid metric to measure success on.  To measure how effective your personalization use is, use customer lifetime value over a long time period – months, even years – and compare the results with those from a control group, which receives no personalization. Don’t ignore campaign-level results, but log them and view them over time.

(For more detailed information on testing mistakes and how to avoid them, see my MarTech column 7 Common Problems that Derail A/B/N Email Testing Success.)

Mistake #5. Over-segmenting your customer base

Segmentation is a valuable form of personalization, but it’s easy to go too far with it. If you send only highly segmented campaigns, you could be exclude – and end up losing because of failure to contact – many customers who don’t fit your segmentation criteria. That costs you customers, their potential revenue and the data they would have generated to help you better understand your customer base.

You can avoid this problem with a data-guided segmentation plan that you review and test frequently, a set of automated triggers to enhance the customer’s lifecycle and a well-thought-out program of default or catch-all campaigns for subscribers who don’t meet your other criteria. 

Mistake #6. Not including dynamic content in general email campaigns

We usually think of personalized email as messages in which all the content lines up with customer behavior or preference data, whether overt, as in an abandoned-cart message, or covert, where the content is subtly relevant.

That’s one highly sophisticated approach. It incorporates real-time messaging driven by artificial intelligence and complex integrations with your ecommerce or CRM platforms. But a simple dynamic content module can help you achieve a similar result. I call that “serendipity.”  

When you weave this dynamic content into your general message, it can be a pleasant surprise for your customers and make your relevant content stand out even more. 

Let’s say your company is a cruise line. Customer A opens your emails from time to time but hasn’t booked a cruise yet or browsed different tours on your website. Your next email campaign to this customer – and to everyone else on whom you have little or no data – promotes discounted trips to Hawaii, Fiji and the Mediterranean.


Customer B hasn’t booked a cruise either, but your data tells you she has browsed your Iceland-Denmark-Greenland cruise recently. With a dynamic content module, her email could show her your Hawaii and Mediterranean cruise offers – and a great price on a trip to Iceland, Denmark and Greenland. Fancy that! 

An email like this conveys the impression that your brand offers exactly what your customers are looking for (covert personalization) without the overt approach of an abandoned-browse email.

Mistake #7. Not using a personal tone in your copy

You can personalize your email copy without a single data point, simply by writing as if you were speaking to your customer face to face. Use a warm, human tone of voice, which ideally should reflect your brand voice. Write copy that sounds like a one-to-one conversation instead of a sales pitch. 

This is where my concept of “helpful marketing” comes into play. How does your brand help your customers achieve their own goals, solve their problems or make them understand you know them as people, not just data points?  

Mistake #8. Not personalizing the entire journey

Once again, this is a scenario in which you take a short-sighted view of personalization – “How do I add personalization to this email campaign?” – instead of looking at the long-term gain: “How can I use personalization to enhance my customer’s experience?”

Personalization doesn’t stop when your customer clicks on your email. It should continue on to your landing page and even be reflected in the website content your customer views. Remember, it’s all about enhancing your customer’s experience.

What happens when your customers click on a personalized offer? Does your landing page greet your customers by name? Show the items they clicked? Present copy that reflects their interests, their loyalty program standing or any other data that’s unique to them?  

Personalization is worth the effort

Yes, personalization takes both art and science into account. You need to handle it carefully so your messages come off as helpful and relevant without veering into creepy territory through data overreaches. But this strategic effort pays off when you can use the power of personalized email to reach out, connect with and retain customers – achieving your goal of enhancing the customer experience.


Opinions expressed in this article are those of the guest author and not necessarily MarTech. Staff authors are listed here.

About The Author

Kath Pay is CEO at Holistic Email Marketing and the author of the award-winning Amazon #1 best-seller “Holistic Email Marketing: A practical philosophy to revolutionise your business and delight your customers.”


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